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Tim Fletcher, Ken Lodewyk, Katie Glover and Sandra Albione

implementation across Ontario. These factors warranted a more concerted and systematic effort to support teachers in using the revised curriculum. In collaboration with curriculum consultants from H&PE and other subject areas, Ophea and the Ministry of Education identified instructional coaching as a promising

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Maria Heikkilä, Raisa Valve, Mikko Lehtovirta and Mikael Fogelholm

subsequent dietary intake for athletic performance, recovery, and overall health, athletes need adequate knowledge regarding nutrition ( Birkenhead & Slater, 2015 ; Torres-McGehee et al., 2012 ). Unfortunately, this knowledge is often limited among both athletes and their coaches ( Cockburn et al., 2014

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Lori A. Gano-Overway and Kristen Dieffenbach

In 2016, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS; U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2018 ) reported that there were 276,100 sport coaching positions within the United States of America (USA). The BLS also noted that the typical educational path for these jobs was completion of a

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Anna Stodter and Christopher J. Cushion

Recent perspectives concerning the learning and professional development of sport coaches have underlined a need to investigate social, relational, contextual and theoretical issues in increasingly sophisticated and pragmatic empirical approaches ( Lyle, 2018 ; Townsend, Cushion, & Smith, 2017

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Amy Waters, Elissa Phillips, Derek Panchuk and Andrew Dawson

practitioners work closely with coaches to improve an athlete’s performance ( Collins, Burke, Martindale, & Cruickshank, 2015 ). Sport scientists and coaches view sprinting performance through distinct lenses based on their different experience and roles. On one hand, sport scientists may be generally more

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Diane Benish, Jody Langdon and Brian Culp

Researchers have indicated that the coach development process begins when the coach is still an athlete ( Cushion, Armour, & Jones, 2003 ), wherein the individual learns about the coaching role through interactions with a variety of coaches over the course of their athletic career. These previous

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Scott Douglas, William R. Falcão and Gordon A. Bloom

In 1986, the U.S. Olympic Committee on Sport for the Disabled concluded that advancing disability sport would require empirical coaching research specific to this domain, as well as attention to the selection and training programs of these coaches ( Reid & Prupas, 1998 ). More than a decade after

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Rui Resende, Pedro Sequeira and Hugo Sarmento

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of coaching and coaching education in Portugal. In Portugal, sport coaching is traditionally considered a part-time vocation. There has been a growing concern of the Portuguese authorities to increase the standards of quality for sport coaching. Following the 1974 revolution there were profound alterations in how coaching and coach education are regulated. The legislative changes in coach education occurred mainly due to the harmonisation of the qualifications in the European Union. More recently, the responsibility for coach certification has moved from the different sports federations to a national sports organization that has created four grades of coach education. Coach education in all grades requires a general and a specific curricular component as well as an internship supervised by an accredited mentor. The academic formation is now well regulated. However, some sport federations are resistant to this academic certification process because they fear losing their exclusive control of their coach certification.

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François Lemyre, Pierre Trudel and Natalie Durand-Bush

Researchers have investigated how elite or expert coaches learn to coach, but very few have investigated this process with coaches at the recreational or developmental-performance levels. Thirty-six youth-sport coaches (ice hockey, soccer, and baseball) were each interviewed twice to document their learning situations. Results indicate that (a) formal programs are only one of the many opportunities to learn how to coach; (b) coaches’ prior experiences as players, assistant coaches, or instructors provide them with some sport-specific knowledge and allow them to initiate socialization within the subculture of their respective sports; (c) coaches rarely interact with rival coaches; and (d) there are differences in coaches’ learning situations between sports. Reflections on who could help coaches get the most out of their learning situations are provided.

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Samuel T. Forlenza, Scott Pierce, Robin S. Vealey and John Mackersie

Research has identified confidence as an important construct that positively affects sport participation and performance ( Vealey & Chase, 2008 ). Identifying and understanding what actions help athletes feel more confident is therefore an important part of coaching. Indeed, athletes identify