Heutagogic learning is characterized by the notion of human agency. Power and autonomy are placed firmly in the hands of the learner, who takes responsibility for, and control of, what they will learn, when it will be learnt and how it will be learnt. As a result, if sufficiently reflexive, heutagogic learners are said to acquire both competencies (knowledge and skills) and capabilities (the capacity to appropriately and effectively apply one’s competence in novel and unanticipated situations). The complex and dynamic environment of sports coaching, coupled with coaches’ apparent preference for informal self-directed learning methods (as opposed to more formalised educational settings), would therefore seem perfect for its application. In this insights paper, we aim to stimulate debate by providing a critical overview of the heutagogic method and consider it against the nature of coaching skill. In tandem, we identify some essential preconditions that coaches might need to develop before heutagogic approaches might be deployed effectively in coach education.
John Stoszkowski and Dave Collins
Bobby Guthrie, Bruce Brown and Jody Redman
Edited by Wade Gilbert
Wade D. Gilbert and Guest Editor
Fernando Santos, Nuno Corte-Real, Leonor Regueiras, Leisha Strachan, Cláudia Dias and António Fonseca
Over the last decades positive development (PD) has served as a framework for several investigations within the sport science community. In fact, multiple researchers have analyzed youth coaches’ role in PD. However, there is recent interest in exploring high performance coaching due to the complexity of the coaching practice, the different developmental needs presented by players, and the relevance of PD within this particular environment. The purpose of this study was to understand the perspectives of Portuguese football coaches about the importance of PD in high performance coaching. The participants in the study were ten male Portuguese football coaches who trained athletes between the ages of 16 and 39 years of age. Findings showed that coaches viewed winning and on field performance as top priorities in their coaching philosophy, but recognized the importance of PD. Coaches also envisioned the determinant role youth coaches have in this domain. Coaches conceptualized PD as an overarching framework that could be used across the developmental spectrum to convey a range of PD outcomes in high performance contexts such as teamwork, respect for others and transfer to other life domains. Moving forward, coach education courses should help coaches develop strategies to foster PD.
James Stephenson, Colum Cronin and Amy E. Whitehead
learning and thus reflective practice is viewed as an important part of coach learning ( Gilbert & Trudel, 2002 ; Moon, 2013 ). Indeed, for some time now, it has been argued that reflective practice should be central to coach education programmes ( Cushion, Armour, & Jones, 2003 ; Knowles, Borrie
Loel Collins, Howie J. Carson and Dave Collins
Previous research has emphasised the dynamic nature of coaching practice and the need to consider both individual performer needs and necessary contextual trade-offs in providing optimum solutions. In this regard, a Professional Judgment and Decision Making framework has been suggested to facilitate an optimum blend of actions against these complex and dynamic demands. Accordingly, we extend this work and address recent calls for greater focus on expertise-oriented assessments, by postulating on the aspirant/developing coach’s capacity for and development of metacognition (i.e., active control over cognitive processes) as a ‘tool’ within the reflective process. Specifically, we propose that metacognition enables essential active cognitive processing for deep learning and impactful application, together with construction and refinement of useable knowledge to inform coaching decisions. Metacognition, therefore, helps to contextualise knowledge provided in training, further optimising the experience, particularly before certification. Finally, we exemplify how metacognition can be developed in coaches through the use of cognitive apprenticeships and decision training tools; and evaluated via a series of observed coaching episodes, with reasoning articulated through pre and postsession interview. Despite challenging traditional competency-based approaches to coach education, we believe that a considered mixed approach represents a vital next step in further professionalising sports coaching.
Hedda Berntsen and Elsa Kristiansen
the quality of coach education can be improved when CDPs focus on: (a) coaches’ interpersonal knowledge ( Lefebvre et al., 2016 ) and (b) developing and implementing CDPs that are grounded in theory ( Allan, Vierimaa, Gainforth, & Côté, 2017 ; Evans et al., 2015 ). Lefebvre et al. ( 2016 ) classified
Thomas M. Leeder, Kate Russell and Lee C. Beaumont
support rather than challenge existing ideologies, potentially contributing to the reproduction of pre-existing coaching cultures and practices ( Griffiths, 2013 ). In contrast, formalised coach mentoring programmes have grown in prominence and are regularly incorporated into coach education provision
Terilyn C. Shigeno, E. Earlynn Lauer, Leslee A. Fisher, Emily J. Johnson and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek
take a deeper look into the implications of coach education programs targeted toward moral growth. For example, some researchers (e.g., Turnnidge & Côté, 2017 ) have begun to expand coach training by developing CDPs which provide coaches with applied learning opportunities to address coaching