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Eva-Carin Lindgren and Bengt Fridlund

The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical understanding of what could influence exercise adherence in physically non-active young women. Interviews with twelve physically nonactive young women were strategically selected and analyzed by grounded theory. The results were that several factors could influence exercise adherence in physically non-active young women, and that these factors can be regarded as a number of interrelated dimensions. The influence was coming either from the exercise or from the environment connected to the exercise. The participants wanted to feel enjoyment and to learn something during the exercise (recreation/learning influence). They also wanted to feel belongingness during the exercise (social influence). An influence that promotes health or builds skills (investment influence) could be a trigger to start exercising among the participants, but not to maintain exercise adherence. Influence coming from the environment (enabling influence) was both important and stimulating for physically non-active young women in establishing regular exercise. It is important to present the model developed in this study to communities, sports federations and other authorities working with health promotion activities so that they can explore innovative ways to promote exercise adherence among physically non-active young women. Good examples could be to offer non-competitive sports as well as to develop well-designed exercise programs for physically non-active young women.

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Kalevi Heinilä

The official value orientation of international sport emphasizes common good causes such as international understanding, peace, friendship, and Olympic solidarity. However, when nations compete in international sport events their operational goals are defined in terms of national interests and materialized in terms of competitive success. This is a basic dilemma and contradiction in international sport, and it is clearly evident in the Olympic movement. While the International Olympic Committee (IOC) operates on the basis of common good causes, the national Olympic committees (NOCs) operate on the basis of national interests. In fact, the NOCs are even reluctant to supervise any rules and resolutions interfering with this national pursuit of success, let alone recognize the common good values in international sport. In this paper it is hypothesized that international sport is vulnerable to a legitimation crisis because it is premised on values that are incompatible with the values and policies that guide involvement at the national level. This hypothesis is based on the results of a semantic differential pilot study through which the basic ideological concepts of international sport are compared with the operational concepts underlying national sport systems. It is concluded that since we know very little about the meanings people assign to international sport, it is difficult to make statements about the consequences of international events.

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James Curtis, William McTeer and Philip White

This paper presents findings on the relationship between high school sport participation and involvement in sport as adults. The data are provided by a survey of a large representative national sample of adult Canadians. For different age subgroups among women and men, we tested the school sport experiences hypothesis that sport involvement during the high school years contributes to later adult involvement in sport. The measurement of sport involvement in the high school years is concerned with intramural and inter-school activities. Adult sport activity has three measures: sport involvement per se, involvement in an organized setting, and competitive involvement. The results are consistent with the school experiences hypothesis. High school sport involvement, for inter-school sport activities, is a comparatively strong predictor of adult sport involvement. The effects of high school involvement persist after controlling for correlated social background factors. Moreover, the effects of school sport experiences hold across age and gender subgroups. Although diminished with temporal distance from the high school years, the effects of high school involvement nonetheless extend even to respondents aged 40-59 (i.e., those approximately 22 to 42 years beyond their school years) among both genders. Interpretations of the results are discussed.

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Sharon R. Guthrie, T. Michelle Magyar, Stephanie Eggert and Craig Kain

Researchers have extensively documented gender differences in negotiation perceptions and performance which, in turn, may contribute to the persistence of salary and workplace inequity between women and men. The purpose of this study was to determine if these differences existed among a sample of 228 athletes (women n = 151 and men n = 77) who had competed in sport at high school, competitive club, college, or through professional levels for 15 years. More specifically, gender differences in the propensity to initiate negotiation were investigated in order to determine whether the three factors associated with the Babcock, Gelfand, Small, and Stayn (2006) Propensity to Initiate Negotiation Model (i.e., recognition of opportunity, sense of entitlement, and apprehension) explained and mediated such differences. Propensity to initiate negotiation (PIN) was operationally defined as self-reported responses to a series of hypothetical negotiation scenarios, as well as recent and anticipated future negotiation experiences. Females reported significantly more negotiation apprehension than males; they did not differ, however, in their recognition of opportunities and sense of entitlement associated with negotiation. The implications of these findings are discussed.

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Steven Baumann and Keith Henschen

In recent years, the academic standards of the collegiate student athlete have become a popular subject within the sociology of sport. In January 1983, the top competitive division of the NCAA voted to make more stringent the academic standards for participants in Division I intercollegiate sports. This was known as Proposal 48, and although the vote was 2 to 1 in favor of it, much criticism was also voiced. This study examines the relationship between the American College Testing Program (ACT) and actual grade point average (GPA) for 753 male and female athletes at the University of Utah during a 10-year period. A secondary purpose was to determine the predictive validity of a predicted GPA formula (PGPA) and high school grade point average (HSGPA) as estimates of actual GPA. Other purposes were to determine the correlation of ACT, PGPA, and HSGPA with regard to gender, race, and sport. Pearson product-moment correlations were utilized to establish relationships between ACT scores, PGPA, and HSGPA with actual GPA. A multiple correlation coefficient was computed and a regression equation was established. In addition, a cross-validation was performed on the existing data. Results indicated that an equation combining ACT and HSGPA is the best predictor for Caucasians, while HSGPA alone is the best predictor for non-Caucasians. Factors other than ACT scores appear to be better predictors of academic success for the student-athlete, thus casting doubt upon the validity of Proposal 48 for the NCAA.

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Sheila Hanlon

forgotten by history. In Muscle on Wheels , historian M. Ann Hall revives the story of Canada’s mère du cyclisme féminin . A rich picture emerges of Armaindo’s life and racing career, and the broader world of women’s competitive pedestrianism and bicyclisme in 1880s-90s America. This is an important

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Colleen English

National Amateur Athletic Federation (NAAF), show that those who held powerful positions in sport preferred women’s athletics to remain in its own, less strenuous and less competitive sphere. American press reports, including those about the race itself, its subsequent elimination from the Olympic program

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Kristi A. Allain

Ferbey, 7 once emblematic of the sociable curler, as the last of “a dying breed” ( Pavia, 2015 , para. 1). The article explained, “Elite curlers—those competing for an Olympic berth. .. train more seriously nowadays as the sport becomes less social and more competitive” (para. 4). Existing alongside

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Nancy E. Spencer

narrative, when she writes about her exposure to competitive cheerleading. In 2010, at the University of Maryland’s Comcast Center, she attended the National Competitive Stunts and Tumbling Association (NCSTA) Meet. She acknowledged that she had “entertained a certain ambivalence toward cheerleading” for

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B. David Ridpath

influences, and access to education are just a few of the areas that Overman touches and connects to an overemphasis on winning at the earliest competitive levels for most Americans. Although the book has many examples and empirical sources, the author also compellingly makes a case as to why the overall