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Gina Pauline and Jeffrey S. Pauline

Sport management programs continue to focus on developing innovative pedagogical strategies to prepare students to enter and successfully navigate the rapidly evolving, highly competitive sport industry. One effective tactic is to integrate experiential learning projects into the classroom. This paper describes a collaborative three-year partnership involving a sport management program, athletic department, and corporate sponsor. The relationship provided scholarships for the program, internship opportunities, research funding, and an experiential learning project. Specifically, the lead author applied the metadiscrete experiential learning model developed by Southall, Nagel, LeGrande, and Han (2003) to a client based sponsorship activation project for an upper-level sport marketing course. The paper offers a blueprint and specific recommendations for faculty who wish to develop a client-based collaborative effort that can provide a hands-on learning experience for students and generate programmatic resources, research possibilities, student scholarships, and funding opportunities for an academic program. Such projects can further prepare students as well as enhance the fit between sport management programs and the sport industry.

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Amanda M. Rymal, Rose Martini and Diane M. Ste-Marie

Self-modeling involves the observation of oneself on an edited videotape to show a desired performance (Dowrick & Dove, 1980). While research has investigated the effects of self-modeling on physical performance and psychological mechanisms in relation to skill acquisition (e.g., Clark & Ste-Marie, 2007), no research to date has used a qualitative approach to examine the thought processes athletes engage in during the viewing of a self-modeling video in a competitive sport environment. The purpose of this study was to explore the self-regulatory processes of ten divers who viewed a self-modeling video during competitions. After competition, the divers were asked four questions relating to the self-modeling video. Zimmerman’s (2000) self-regulation framework was adopted for deductive analysis of the responses to those questions. The results indicated that a number of self-regulatory processes were employed, and they were mainly those in the forethought (75%) and self-reflection (25%) phases of Zimmerman’s model. Directions for future research in self-regulation and self-modeling are discussed.

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Eric Emmanuel Coris, Stephen Walz, Jeff Konin and Michele Pescasio

Context:

Heat illness is the third leading cause of death in athletics and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in exercising athletes. Once faced with a case of heat related illness, severe or mild, the health care professional is often faced with the question of when to reactivate the athlete for competitive sport. Resuming activity without modifying risk factors could lead to recurrence of heat related illness of similar or greater severity. Also, having had heat illness in and of itself may be a risk factor for future heat related illness. The decision to return the athlete and the process of risk reduction is complex and requires input from all of the components of the team. Involving the entire sports medicine team often allows for the safest, most successful return to play strategy. Care must be taken once the athlete does begin to return to activity to allow for re-acclimatization to exercise in the heat prior to resumption particularly following a long convalescent period after more severe heat related illness.

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Barbara A. Brown

The high attrition rates observed among young athletes, particularly adolescents, have been attributed to and studied primarily as outcomes of negative aspects of the organization and administration of competitive youth sport. The present study extends this research by examining withdrawal from competitive sport roles in the broader context of the role constellation and lifestyle of adolescent girls. A conceptual framework was developed to examine the process of withdrawal from the role of competitive age group swimmer. It was hypothesized that withdrawal is influenced by six categories of factors: (a) the salience of gender-role stereotypes; (b) the diversity and salience of the opportunity set; (c) the degree of social support from significant others for the sport role; (d) the extent to which the athlete role is perceived as central to personal identity; (e) the extent to which positive and negative outcomes are associated with sport involvement; and (f) the degree of commitment to the athlete role. Survey data were collected from 211 former swimmers and 193 currently involved age group swimmers in Ontario, Canada. It was concluded that a combination of factors from a variety of sources interact to influence the role transition.

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Aditi Mankad, Sandy Gordon and Karen Wallman

Psychological trauma associated with long-term injury can cause athletes to experience intense stress-like symptoms and considerable negative affect (e.g., Tracey, 2003; Udry, 1997). Due to the nature of competitive sport, however, it is thought that injured athletes inhibit these emotions to the detriment of their physical health. The present study examined Pennebaker’s (1989) emotional disclosure paradigm within a sporting context. It was hypothesized that writing about a traumatic injury would reduce athletes’ mood disturbance and stress during rehabilitation. Further, it was believed that these changes would correspond with an increase in immune expression from pre- to postintervention. Elite injured athletes (N = 9) rehabilitating from anterior cruciate ligament surgery participated in the 3-day writing intervention, consisting of 3 X 20 min writing sessions, during which athletes disclosed negative emotions associated with their injury and rehabilitation experiences. Measures were taken at six time-points (T1-T6), with pre- and postintervention phases lasting for 4 weeks each. Measures consisted of psychological stress (intrusion and avoidance), total mood disturbance, and relative cell-counts/µL for circulating T-cells (CD4/8) and NK cells (CD16/56). Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed a signifcant main effect of time for intrusion, F(5, 70) = 5.83, p =.001, η2 = .29 and avoidance, F(5, 70) = 5.73, p =.002, η2 = 0.29 subscales; mood disturbance, F(5, 70) = 3.71, p= 0.005, η2 = 0.21; and CD4+, F(5, 65) = 2.39, p= 0.048, η2 = .16. Subsequent linear contrasts provided further evidence of significant prepost differences among the stress, mood state, and immune variables. These results suggest that the written disclosure intervention has potential psycho-immunological benefits for athletes rehabilitating from long-term injury.

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Kevin McCurdy and John Walker

Context: Within each hamstring muscle, there are segments with separate nerve innervation. However, a better understanding of activation levels within these regions during resistance exercise could lead to region-specific training for improved performance and injury prevention. Objective: To compare muscle activation levels within regions of the hamstrings during various resistance exercises. Design: Within-subjects repeated measures. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Eighteen young adult females with previous competitive sport participation and resistance training experience. Intervention: One set of 3 repetitions with an 8RM load on the bilateral squat, modified single-leg squat, stiff-legged dead lift, and leg curl (LC). Main Outcome Measures: Normalized surface electromyography of 4 hamstring regions (proximal-medial, proximal-lateral, distal-medial, and distal-lateral). Results: For LC only, electromyography measures for the proximal-lateral location were significantly lower than for the distal-lateral, t 18 = 5.6, P < .001, and proximal-medial, t 18 = 2.4, P = .01 locations for concentric contractions. Similar results were observed for eccentric contractions. No other exercises revealed regional activation differences. When comparing the pooled proximal (medial and lateral) region across exercises, the LC demonstrated significantly greater activation than the modified single-leg squat, t 18 = 5.20, P < .001, stiff-legged dead lift, t 18 = 7.311, P < .001, and bilateral squat, F 3,54 = 49.8, P < .001. Similar significantly greater levels were also found during the LC for the pooled distal, medial, and lateral regions. In addition, the modified single-leg squat electromyography was significantly greater at all regions in comparison with the stiff-legged dead lift and bilateral squat. Conclusions: The data did not reveal consistent regional differences within the different exercises included in this study. However, the data indicate that the LC produces the highest hamstring activation in all regions across exercises. Inclusion of single-joint knee-flexion exercises would appear to be most beneficial for hamstrings development in a resistance-training program.

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James S. Hogg, James G. Hopker and Alexis R. Mauger

Purpose:

The novel self-paced maximal-oxygen-uptake (VO2max) test (SPV) may be a more suitable alternative to traditional maximal tests for elite athletes due to the ability to self-regulate pace. This study aimed to examine whether the SPV can be administered on a motorized treadmill.

Methods:

Fourteen highly trained male distance runners performed a standard graded exercise test (GXT), an incline-based SPV (SPVincline), and a speed-based SPV (SPVspeed). The GXT included a plateau-verification stage. Both SPV protocols included 5 × 2-min stages (and a plateau-verification stage) and allowed for self-pacing based on fixed increments of rating of perceived exertion: 11, 13, 15, 17, and 20. The participants varied their speed and incline on the treadmill by moving between different marked zones in which the tester would then adjust the intensity.

Results:

There was no significant difference (P = .319, ES = 0.21) in the VO2max achieved in the SPVspeed (67.6 ± 3.6 mL · kg−1 · min−1, 95%CI = 65.6–69.7 mL · kg−1 · min−1) compared with that achieved in the GXT (68.6 ± 6.0 mL · kg−1 · min−1, 95%CI = 65.1–72.1 mL · kg−1 · min−1). Participants achieved a significantly higher VO2max in the SPVincline (70.6 ± 4.3 mL · kg−1 · min−1, 95%CI = 68.1–73.0 mL · kg−1 · min−1) than in either the GXT (P = .027, ES = 0.39) or SPVspeed (P = .001, ES = 0.76).

Conclusions:

The SPVspeed protocol produces VO2max values similar to those obtained in the GXT and may represent a more appropriate and athlete-friendly test that is more oriented toward the variable speed found in competitive sport.

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Scholarly Article Lowering the Bar: Larry Gains’s Heavyweight Battle for a Title Shot, 1927–1932 Ornella Nzindukiyimana * Kevin B. Wamsley * 11 2016 47 2 125 145 10.1123/shr.2015-0027 From Sport as an Instrument in Rehabilitation to the Adoption of Competitive Sport: Genesis of a

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Pathology, or Modern Day Competitive Sport? Mark T. Suffolk * 12 2014 8 4 339 356 10.1123/jcsp.2014-0044 We Are Able, We Intend, We Act—But We Do Not Succeed: A Theoretical Framework for a Better Understanding of Paradoxical Performance in Sports Babett H. Lobinger * Martin K. Klämpfl * Eckart

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Theory Maureen R. Weiss * Candie Stevens * 9 1993 7 7 3 3 244 244 261 261 10.1123/tsp.7.3.244 Predicting Athletic Success: Issues Related to Analysis and Interpretation of Study Findings Ralph Renger * 9 1993 7 7 3 3 262 262 274 274 10.1123/tsp.7.3.262 Goal Setting in Competitive Sport: An