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Audrey R. Giles

Using data collected from 4 months of ethnographic research that was conducted during the summer of 2002, this article examines the complexity inherent in anthropological investigations of “tradition,” and also the multiplicity of ways that traditions are looked at by residents of Sambaa K’e and Dene Games organizers in the Northwest Territories. By exploring different interpretations of traditional Dene Games, the role of women in such games, and the ideological positions that have contributed to these interpretations, the ways in whichß certain understandings of tradition are privileged over others are elucidated.

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Monica A. Perez

Most of our daily actions involve movements of the hand. The neuronal pathway contributing to the control of hand movements are complex and not yet completely understood. Recent studies highlight how task-dependent changes in cortical and subcortical pathways driven by contralateral and ipsilateral influences may open avenues to further understand the complexity of hand actions in healthy and disease. In the following section studies using transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation in healthy subjects and in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury will be highlighted to further understand neuronal pathways involved in the control of voluntary activity by hand muscles.

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Bottom W. Brewer, Judy L. Van Raalte and Darwyn E. Linder

The effects of experimentally induced pressure pain on the performance of a weight lifting task, a simple golf putting task, and a complex golf putting task were examined in male college students. It was found that pain did not affect performance of the weight lifting task, slightly hampered performance of the simple putting task, and severely hampered performance of the complex putting task. Because the adverse effects of pain increased with task complexity, the findings are consistent with the notion mat pain is a form of arousal and mat pain affects performance in a manner similar to arousal. Limitations of the present experiments and directions for future research are discussed.

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Lawrence W. Judge and David Bellar

The discus throw is a complex track and field event combining linear and angular motion. Success in the discus throw necessitates being strong and explosive; but due to the complexity of the event, throwers must be technically sound. The basic throwing technique employed by all discus throwers is similar, but variations are present due to anthropometrics, physical abilities, training, and error influences. Working with a Paralympic discus thrower, that has a physical disability, is a unique coaching challenge that makes it important to individualize the technical model to meet the physical abilities of the athlete.

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Joris Drayer and Daniel A. Rascher

Teaching a graduate level sport finance class can be quite complex. With a variety of concepts such as pricing, budgeting, and public funding, to convey in a limited amount of time, new forms of pedagogy are necessary to assist instructors as this technologically-advanced generation enters into academia. Subsequently, technology has been created to apply basic concepts related to finance to the complexity of a professional sports organization. One such program is the Oakland A’s Baseball Business Simulator. Through interviews and “emotional recall” (Ellis, 2004), this evaluative case study seeks to determine the effectiveness of this technology within this environment.

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Natalie Barker-Ruchti and Richard Tinning

Women’s artistic gymnastics is an Olympic sport that involves intricate acrobatic and rhythmic activities. This kinesthetic proficiency demands muscular strength and courage, which have been argued to serve its athletes as a source of empowerment.

Various scholars question the positive effects of sport participation. This article builds on these doubts through a feminist Foucauldian study of WAG. An essayistic research story, compiled from data gained in an ethnographic study, serves as the basis for our analyses. The results demonstrate the complexity of WAG experiences and illustrate that gymnasts’ athletic proficiency is only possible through an extensive and elaborate process of corporeal discipline.

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Kathleen A. Csizma, Arno F. Wittig and K. Terry Schurr

Two samples were used to assess the sex linkage of a wide range of sports. One sample rated each of 68 sports (Matteo, 1984) on perceived acceptability and likelihood of participation for both females and males. The other judged the same 68 sports for masculinity-femininity and perceived complexity. Additionally, all 68 sports were compared to Metheny's (1965) physical activities criteria for perceived appropriateness for female participation. Results indicated that masculinity-femininity judgments were similar to those obtained by Matteo (1984) and that correlations of sex linkage of sport with acceptability and likelihood of participation were high, especially for judgments about female participants. Agreement between sex-type categories for sports and Metheny's (1965) criteria was most consistent for sports receiving either the most extreme masculine or most extreme feminine ratings. It appears that perceptions of the masculinity or femininity of sports are influenced by the gender of who actually participates in those sports as well as the physical activities involved in the sports. Finally, the correlation between mean masculinity-femininity and simplicity-complexity ratings was small and not significant. Indeed, those groups of sports categorized as masculine and feminine were rated as equally complex, and both groups were judged as significantly more complex than the sports classified as neutral. This finding negates Deaux's (1984) contention that feminine tasks are inevitably judged to be simpler than masculine tasks.

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Damon Burton

The purpose of this investigation was to utilize a multidimensional measure of anxiety and a more sensitive intraindividual performance measure to evaluate the relationship between anxiety and performance. Three hypotheses were tested. First, cognitive anxiety is more consistently and strongly related to performance than is somatic anxiety. Second, somatic anxiety demonstrates an inverted-U relationship with performance, whereas self-confidence and performance exhibit a positive linear relationship and cognitive anxiety and performance exhibit a negative one. Finally, short duration and high and low complexity events demonstrate stronger relationships between somatic anxiety and performance than do long duration or moderate complexity events. Two samples of swimmers completed the CSAI-2 prior to competition, and performance data were obtained from meet results. Correlational and multiple regression analyses generally supported Hypotheses 1 and 3, while polynomial trend analyses on standardized CSAI-2 scores confirmed trends predicted in Hypothesis 2. Overall, these results not only revealed that improved instrumentation allows demonstration of consistent anxiety-performance relationships, but they also provided additional construct validity for the CSAI-2.

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Jaime Serra-Olivares, Luis M. García-López and Antonio Calderón

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of modification strategies based on the pedagogical principles of the Teaching Games for Understanding approach on tactical constraints of four 3v3 soccer small-sided games. The Game performance of 21 U-10 players was analyzed in a game similar to the adult game; one based on keeping-the-ball; another on penetrating-the-defense; and one on attacking-the-goal. Results showed that the modification of tactical problems had a significantly different effect on tactical-context adaptation (p < .005) and for developing passing, dribbling, shooting and getting free skills (p < .005). Small-sided games focused on keeping-the-ball and attacking-the-goal revealed a tactical complexity that was significantly different to the rest of the games (p < .005). With regard to the further investigation of the quality representative task design, these findings highlight the importance of knowing the effects that modification has on tactical constraints and the tactical complexity/technical difficulty involved in developing behaviors.

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Alejandro Lucía, María Morán, He Zihong and Jonatan R. Ruiz

Recent research has analyzed the genetic factors that influence world-class athletic status. Much of what we know comes from association studies, with the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms having been extensively studied. The association between the ACTN3 R577X variation and elite athlete status in power sports is strongly documented, yet whether the current body of knowledge on other variants can be extrapolated to athletic champion status remains to be determined. Athletic champion status is a complex polygenic trait in which numerous candidate genes, complex gene–gene interactions, and environment–gene interactions are involved. Besides the need for more studies and new approaches taking into account the complexity of the problem, we believe that factors beyond genetic endowment are likely to have a stronger influence in the attainment of athletic champion status.