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Ron Davis, Gale Gehlsen and Jerry D. Wilkerson

This study quantitatively analyzed the backward propulsion technique used by elite Class II CP wheelchair athletes. Six subjects, 3 males and 3 females, were selected from the 1984 International Games for the Disabled. The subjects were filmed in a staged setting during a sprint start for the first three complete cycles. A digitizer interfaced to an Apple II+ computer was employed to digitize the film data. A computer program served to reduce the data into linear and angular kinematic components. For the purposes of analysis, the foot propulsive movement cycles or thrust cycles were divided into the two movement phases of push and recovery. The results of the study indicated that the initial three movement cycles appeared to be characterized by longer push than recovery time, and wheelchair velocity appeared to be associated with recovery phase displacement.

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Peter Catteeuw, Bart Gilis, Arne Jaspers, Johan Wagemans and Werner Helsen

This study investigates the effect of two off-field training formats to improve offside decision making. One group trained with video simulations and another with computer animations. Feedback after every offside situation allowed assistant referees to compensate for the consequences of the flash-lag effect and to improve their decision-making accuracy. First, response accuracy improved and flag errors decreased for both training groups implying that training interventions with feedback taught assistant referees to better deal with the flash-lag effect. Second, the results demonstrated no effect of format, although assistant referees rated video simulations higher for fidelity than computer animations. This implies that a cognitive correction to a perceptual effect can be learned also when the format does not correspond closely with the original perceptual situation. Off-field offside decision-making training should be considered as part of training because it is a considerable help to gain more experience and to improve overall decision-making performance.

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Shane Murphy

The increasing influence of technology on sports and games is examined and the widespread popularity of video and computer games is identified as an opportunity for sport and exercise psychologists. Modern video and computer games can involve considerable physical activity and social competition and are thus a suitable subject for the application of sport psychology theories and intervention methods. A brief overview of some of the existing research from other fields on video and serious interactive games is presented. The advantages of studying competition, cooperation and exercise in video game play include application of existing theories to new areas, methodological research advantages, and new applied opportunities for practitioners. Sport and exercise psychologists are encouraged to research the long-term viability of studying important sport and exercise psychology topics such as aggression, teamwork and psychological skills using video game and related technologies.

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Kerem Shuval, Tammy Leonard, James Murdoch, Margaret O. Caughy, Harold W. Kohl III and Celette Sugg Skinner

Background:

Numerous studies have documented adverse health effects from prolonged sitting and TV viewing. These sedentary pastimes are linked to increased risk for obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors. No studies, however, have examined these associations specifically in low-income, minority communities in the US.

Methods:

This cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted in South Dallas, TX. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sedentary behaviors (self-report) and measures of objectively assessed obesity (BMI, waist circumference).

Results:

Among a low-income, ethnic-minority population, there were independent and significant associations between higher levels of sitting time, computer use, and transit time with elevated BMI (P < .05). Elevated waist circumference was also linked to increased sitting time, computer use, and transit time, yet without statistical significance.

Conclusions:

Increased time spent in passive-leisure activities is a risk marker for obesity in this population.

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Andrea E. Cripps and Mikaela D. Boham

Context:

The vast majority of athletic trainers administer preseason computerized inventories to document the presence of baseline symptoms; however, immediately following a concussion, athletic trainers frequently assess an athlete verbally or using a paper-based concussion symptom scale. The verbal or paper-based results are then compared with the preseason computer results. Little research is available regarding whether the methodology in which these symptoms are collected has an impact on the report given by the athlete.

Objective:

To determine if baseline self-reported concussion symptom scores varied among collection methods.

Design:

Crossover study design.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

Fifty-two healthy subjects (36 males, 16 females; age 20.27 ± 1.36 years; mass 72.68 ± 14.88 kg; height 175.05 ± 8.50 cm).

Interventions:

All subjects completed, as part of routine preseason baseline testing, the postconcussion scale revised symptom inventory scale in three ways: (1) using a computer, (2) verbally, and (3) on paper.

Main Outcome Measures:

Descriptive statistics were calculated. One-way ANOVAs were conducted to determine the difference in overall symptom score between the inventory methods and sexes as well. Alpha level was set a priori at .05.

Results:

Overall, participants reported a significantly higher number of symptoms on computer-based symptom inventories compared with either verbal- (t51 = 3.014, P = .004, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.668 to 3.32) or paper-based inventories (t51 = 3.004, P = .004, 95% CI 0.765 to 3.850). No signifcant differences were found between verbal- and paper-based inventories (t51 = 1.129, P = .264, 95% CI –0.240 to 0.855).

Conclusions:

Computer-based symptom inventories were significantly different than verbal- or paper-based symptom inventories. Participants may report a higher number of symptoms at baseline when reporting electronically compared with verbal- or paper-based reporting methods. The method in which symptom inventory is obtained may alter the postconcussion diagnosis and warrants further investigation.

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Line Anita Bjørkelund Børrestad, Lars Østergaard, Lars Bo Andersen and Elling Bere

Background:

To provide more accurate assessment of commuting behavior and potential health effect, it is important to have accurate methods. Therefore, the current study aimed to a) compare questionnaire reported mode of commuting with objectively measured data from accelerometer and cycle computer, b) compare moderate vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children cycling vs. walking to school, and c) thus calculate possible underestimated MVPA, when using accelerometers to measure commuter cycling.

Methods:

A total of 78 children, average age 11.4 (SD = 0.5), participated in the study. Physical activity was measured with cycle computers and accelerometers for 4 days. Mode of commuting and demographic information was self-reported in a questionnaire.

Results:

Children who reported to cycle to school spent significantly more time cycling than those who walked to school, 53.6 (SD = ± 33.9) minutes per day vs. 25.5 (SD = ± 24.6) minutes per day (P = .002) (ie, showing that MVPA, measured by accelerometers, underestimated 28.1 minutes per day among children cycling to school vs. those not cycling to school).

Conclusion:

To provide more accurate assessment of active commuting in children and adolescents future studies should incorporate multiple methodologies such as global position systems (GPS), accelerometers, cycle computers, and self-reported measurements.

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Zewditu Demissie, Richard Lowry, Danice K. Eaton, Marci F. Hertz and Sarah M. Lee

Background:

This study investigated associations of violence-related behaviors with physical activity (PA)-related behaviors among U.S. high school students.

Methods:

Data from the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 9th–12th grade students, were analyzed. Sex-stratified, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between violence-related behaviors and being physically active for ≥ 60 minutes daily, sports participation, TV watching for ≥ 3 hours/day, and video game/computer use for ≥ 3 hours/day.

Results:

Among male students, at-school bullying victimization was negatively associated with daily PA (aOR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58–0.87) and sports participation; skipping school because of safety concerns was positively associated with video game/computer use (1.42; 1.01–2.00); and physical fighting was positively associated with daily PA. Among female students, atschool bullying victimization and skipping school because of safety concerns were both positively associated with video game/computer use (1.46; 1.19–1.79 and 1.60; 1.09–2.34, respectively), and physical fighting at school was negatively associated with sports participation and positively associated with TV watching.

Conclusions:

Bullying victimization emerged as a potentially important risk factor for insufficient PA. Schools should consider the role of violence in initiatives designed to promote PA.

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Luisa Aires, Michael Pratt, Felipe Lobelo, Rute Marina Santos, Maria Paula Santos and Jorge Mota

Background:

The objective of this study was to analyze associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with physical activity, time spent watching television and using computer, mode of commuting to school (CS), and adiposity, by gender.

Methods:

Participants were 1708 students (53.8% girls), aged 11 to 19 years. CRF was evaluated with a 20-meter shuttle-run test using VO2max by previously published equation. Maturation stages determined by Tanner’s criteria, body mass index, and skinfolds were measured, and a questionnaire used to assess socioeconomic status, PA, television and computer time, and mode of CS. We conducted a regression analysis using CRF as the dependent variable.

Results:

CRF was independent and positively associated with physical activity [β = 0.338 (95% CI = 0.119; 0.188); P < .001] and with maturation [β = −0.876 (95% CI = 0.666; 1.087); P < .001]; independent and negatively associated with television time [β = −0.003 (95% CI = −0.005; −0.002); P < .001] and adiposity [β = −0.068 (95% CI = −0.076; −0.060); P < .001]. CRF was positively associated with CS [β = 0.337; (95% CI = 0.014; 0.741); P = .014]. No associations were found for computer time.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that increasing overall physical activity levels through interventions in different domains such as active CS, reducing sedentary activities, such as television time, might be effective strategies for improving CRF in youth.

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Melissa Lau, Li Wang, Sari Acra and Maciej S. Buchowski

Background:

Standardized measures of energy expenditure (EE) for sedentary activities in youth are needed. The goal was to determine EE of common contemporary and computer-related sedentary activities in youth.

Methods:

We measured EE for sedentary tasks in 10- to 17-year-old youths (n = 24) during ~24 hours in a whole-room indirect calorimeter. Directly monitored tasks were performed for ~10-min. EE was calculated from oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced, converted to metabolic equivalents (MET) by normalization to an individual’s measured resting EE, and compared with the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth.

Results:

Compared with the youth compendium, measured METs were lower for internet surfing (1.3), computer keyboard typing (1.3), and sorting beads/crafts (1.5) (all P < .002), and similar for handwriting (1.4), playing cards (1.6), video-gaming (1.6), and telephoning (1.5).

Conclusions:

Current youth compendium MET estimates should be used with caution when predicting EE of common contemporary and computer-related sedentary activities in youth.

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John Haywood-Farmer, Todd Sharman and Markus S. Weinbrecht

A simple Lotus 1-2-3 model of the flow of golfers through a high-demand championship golf course was developed to help course managers understand the course’s queuing problems better. The nature of the queuing problem, the Lotus 1-2-3 model, and its use in golf course management are discussed. The key to understanding the dynamics of golf is to recognize the similarities (and differences) between golf and assembly lines. Extension of this idea and computer simulation modeling to other recreational services is proposed.