In order to identify factors associated with on-field moral functioning among student athletes within the unique context of football, we examined masculine gender role conflict, moral atmosphere, and athletic identity. Using structural equation modeling to assess survey data from 204 high school football players, results demonstrated that moral atmosphere (i.e., the influence of coaches and teammates) was significantly associated with participants’ process of on-field moral functioning across the levels of judgment, intention, and behavior. Neither masculine gender role conflict nor athletic identity significantly predicted moral functioning, but the results indicated that participants’ identification with the athlete role significantly predicted conflict with socialized gender roles. Results suggest that in the aggressive and violent sport of football, coaches can have a direct influence on players’ moral functioning process. Coaches can also have an indirect effect by influencing all the players so that a culture of ethical play can be cultivated among teammates and spread from the top down.
Jesse A. Steinfeldt, Leslie A. Rutkowski, Ellen L. Vaughan and Matthew C. Steinfeldt
Christopher L. Stevenson
One underreported issue in the research on Christian athletes has been the difficulties these athletes experience in living with the demands and expectations of the dominant culture of elite, competitive sport. Data were derived from in-depth interviews with 31 elite athletes (23 males and 8 females), who were also professing Christians and associated with the evangelical organization, Athletes-in-Action. The athletes reported that it was by turning to or returning to an evangelical Christian faith that they were better able to cope with their problems and with the demands of the culture of elite, competitive sport. Discussion of these findings included a consideration of Coakley’s (1994) model “of conflict, doubt, and resolution,” which attempts to represent the conflicts experienced by Christian athletes in elite sport, and the approaches they take to assuage these conflicts.
Marvin Washington and Marc J. Ventresca
The prominence of collegiate athletics in amateur athletics is a historically specific outcome. Research in institutional theory is extended by developing an institutional-conflict-based approach to studying institutional changes of U.S. collegiate athletics. Available secondary sources and extensive original data demonstrate how the NCAA came to dominate the governance structure of U.S. amateur basketball. Discourse about the NCAA came to represent the dominant discourse in amateur basketball, and colleges and universities eliminated the noncolleges and nonuniversities from their play schedules. The NCAA developed a set of institutional strategies aimed at increasing its power in U.S. basketball. An institutional-conflict-based approach is useful for analyzing changes in the institutional structure of sports and demonstrates how governance systems and institutional conflicts impact organizational actions. Sport policy makers and managers should consider the historical context and institutional environment of their sport when making decisions.
This paper provides an overview of the role relationship between professional athletes and sports journalists. After a brief historical review it discusses (a) the current conflicts between players and sports writers in light of changing role definitions for both athletes and journalists, (b) ethical guidelines for writers covering athletes as personalities, and (c) how the emergence of superstar athletes has intensified the potential for conflict in player-press relations. The major conclusion is that conflict in player-press relations is likely to continue. Its intensity will vary with the players’ understandings of the role of the press in professional sport, the knowledge and empathy of the sports writers themselves, and the sophistication of the consumers of sport publications.
Maureen R. Weiss, Alan L. Smith and Marc Theeboom
The influence of peer groups on children’s psychosocial development is highlighted in the sport psychology literature in areas such as motivation, self-perceptions, and affect. However, scant research has been devoted to examining children’s and teenagers’ conceptions of friendships within the physical domain. Current and former sport program participants (N = 38) took part in an in-depth interview that concerned their best friend in sports. An inductive content analysis revealed the existence of 12 positive friendship dimensions: companionship, pleasant play/association, self-esteem enhancement, help and guidance, prosocial behavior, intimacy, loyalty, things in common, attractive personal qualities, emotional support, absence of conflicts, and conflict resolution. Four negative friendship dimensions were extracted: conflict, unattractive personal qualities, betrayal, and inaccessible. These conceptions of friendship were both similar and unique to friendship conceptions found in mainstream developmental research. Future research directions include measurement efforts, relationships among important constructs, and intervention techniques in the sport setting.
Raymond P. Harrison and Deborah L. Feltz
Sport psychology by its very title implies that it is a specialty within psychology. However, many sport psychologists have primary allegiance to other fields besides psychology, and many are not licensed or even eligible for licensing to practice psychology. Problems which have occurred for other psychological specialties are reviewed as a means of predicting conflicts which might arise between unlicensed sport psychologists and state psychology licensing boards. Several alternative responses are outlined by which sport psychologists might minimize future legal conflicts. In any event, sport psychologists should begin now to anticipate these difficulties and prepare means for dealing with them.
Martin J. Barwood, Joe Kupusarevic and Stuart Goodall
case at higher concentrations (ie, 4.6% 12 ). Therefore, it is also plausible that menthol application could increase the risk of heat illness and place behavioral and thermoregulatory drivers in conflict. Nevertheless, there are iterations on the timing of menthol application that have not been
Nickolai Martonick, Kimber Kober, Abigail Watkins, Amanda DiEnno, Carmen Perez, Ashlie Renfro, Songah Chae and Russell Baker
conflicts of interest to report. References 1. Hewett TE , Myer GD , Ford K , et al . Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes . Am J Sports Med . 2009 ; 33 ( 4 ): 492 – 501 . doi: 10
Samuel Y. Todd, Ian Christie, Marshall J. Magnusen and Kenneth J. Harris
This case highlights key elements in Pelled’s (1996) model of diversity, and is based on real life interactions of an actual grounds crew in intercollegiate baseball. The small work group of three individuals collectively prepares the grounds of a new collegiate ballpark for opening day. In the course of daily facility maintenance, the staff encounters both affective and substantive conflict according to Pelled’s model. This leads to both destructive and constructive performance outcomes. Also of issue in the case is the differential relationship that the supervisor shares with each of his subordinates, or leader member exchange (LMX). Together with the teaching notes, the case is designed to highlight (1) elements of group conflict arising from demographic diversity and (2) the nature of LMX within sport organizations. An overview of theory, student applications, and discussion questions and answers are provided to aid instructors in teaching this case.
Walter Gantz, Lawrence A. Wenner, Christina Carrico and Matthew Knorr
This paper describes the role of televised sports in married life. It documents how adults integrate televised sports into their relationship with their spouse and evaluate its impact on that relationship. Telephone interviews were conducted with 399 married adults residing in San Francisco and Indianapolis. Respondents were asked about their own TV sports viewing behaviors as well as those of their spouse. Televised sports appears to play a generally positive albeit small role in marital life. TV sports viewing often is a shared activity and does not appear to trigger many scheduling or TV viewing conflicts. And, when such conflicts occur, they appear to be resolved amicably and easily. It may be that accommodations for differing interests in TV sports are resolved early in a marital relationship, along with other accommodations that marriage often dictates.