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Pooja Somasundaram and Alexandra M. Burgess

judging criterion is based on a numeric value such as distance run, weight lifted, or time elapsed, or where competition is head to head with an opposing team. This category included all sports reported that were not classified as aesthetic sports (i.e., crew, cross country, skiing, swimming, track and

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Meredith Rocchi and Luc G. Pelletier

of 424 coaches ( n male  = 306, n female  = 103, and n missing  = 15) aged 19–71 years ( M  = 42.25, SD  = 10.10) participated in the study. They came from a variety of sport backgrounds including basketball, boxing, cross-country skiing, diving, figure skating, football, gymnastics, hockey

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James Hardy, Nikos Comoutos and Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis

) showed improved tennis volley execution. When positive and negative self-talk was targeted, Rushall, Hall, Roux, Sasseville, and Rushall ( 1988 ) revealed enhanced cross-country skiing performance, and Van Raalte et al.’s ( 1995 ) data yielded superior dart throwing accuracy for positive self

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Nathan Hall, Brent Bradford, José da Costa and Daniel B. Robinson

in their sport. This is true, for example, for local provincial sport associations or sporting organizations related to cycling, inline skating and skateboarding, curling, and cross-country skiing. These suggestions may both reduce the perceived cost barrier and the perception of other barriers for

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Heather Kennedy, Bradley J. Baker, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk

participation. This mirrors industry figures showing a decline in running participation, whereas participation in other outdoor activities rises. For example, outdoor participation trends show a 3-year growth (from 2013 to 2016) in other recreation activities including stand-up paddle boarding (61.6%), cross-country

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Stiliani Ani Chroni, Frank Abrahamsen, Eivind Skille and Liv Hemmestad

(as communicated in demands and provisions from above), may have an impact on their stress perceptions, evaluations, and consequent actions. Recently, Hansen and Andersen ( 2014 ) described coaches and support personnel for the cross-country ski athletes of Norway, as ‘sense-givers’ who influence

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Andre Koka and Heino Sildala

students were engaged in the following activities: team sports (e.g., basketball, volleyball, and football); track and field athletics; and winter sports (e.g., cross-country skiing and skating). Assessment was based on students’ activity (diligence) in classes, their effort, and personal development. All

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

of elite sports, including cross-country skiing and biathlon, 21 , 22 cycling, 23 – 26 kayaking, 27 , 28 orienteering, 29 sprinting, 30 swimming, 31 , 32 and tennis. 33 Depending on the event and the prevailing philosophies in a sport, coaches and athletes may plan for single, double, or