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Chevelle M.A. Davis, Tetine L. Sentell, Juliana Fernandes de Souza Barbosa, Alban Ylli, Carmen-Lucia Curcio and Catherine M. Pirkle

?” Various studies have validated the use of self-reported heart disease status questions ( Joshi & Turnbull, 2009 ). Participants were assessed for depression using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale ( Ylli et al., 2016 ). Following guidelines, a cutoff score of 16 was used to determine

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John Cairney, Brent E. Faught, John Hay, Terrance J. Wade and Laurie M. Corna

Background:

Although physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety, research on the mental health benefits of PA in older adults is limited. Moreover, the psychosocial factors that might mediate or moderate the relationship between PA and depression in this population are largely unexplored.

Methods:

Using a sample of adults age 65 and older (N = 2736), we examined whether the major components of the stress process model (stress, social support, mastery, self-esteem) and physical health mediate or moderate the relationship between PA and depressive symptoms.

Results:

Physical health has the single largest effect, accounting for 45% of the effect of PA on depression. The stress process model, with physical health included, accounts for 70% of the relationship between PA and depression.

Conclusions:

Among older adults with above average levels of perceived mastery, greater physical activity is associated with higher levels of depression. Limitations and directions for further research are discussed.

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Diana Castaneda-Gameros, Sabi Redwood and Janice L. Thompson

regular PA Benefits of PA Avoiding depression Preventing physical decline and maintaining independence Perceived Barriers to Meeting PA Guidelines There were three important health-related barriers that limited PA engagement across the sample including: aging and illness, different physical abilities

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Susanna Kola-Palmer, Samantha Buckley, Gabrielle Kingston, Jonathan Stephen, Alison Rodriguez, Nicole Sherretts and Kiara Lewis

Common mental health disorders (CMDs) include different types of depression and anxiety disorders ( Stansfeld et al., 2016 ). They are associated with a range of emotional, cognitive, behavioural and physical symptoms, and cause substantial emotional distress and interfere with daily function. They

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Sarah A. McGraw, Christopher R. Deubert, Holly Fernandez Lynch, Alixandra Nozzolillo, Lauren Taylor and I. Glenn Cohen

depression compared to the general population of adults in the U.S. In a survey of 1,063 former NFL players, 25.6% of the players aged 30–49 years old and 22.9% of those 50 years and older reported current or lifetime depression based on items from the PHQ-9 1 and the National Study of American Life ( Weir

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Lynette L. Craft, Frank M. Perna, Karen M. Freund and Larry Culpepper

Background:

Exercise effectively reduces symptoms of depression. However, correlates of regular exercise in depressed women are unknown. This study assessed psychosocial determinants of exercise in a sample of women with depressive symptoms.

Methods:

Sixty-one women completed demographic, depression, and exercise-related questionnaires.

Results:

The average Primary Health Ques-tionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression score was 12.1 (SD = 5.0), indicating moderate depressive symptoms. In the previous week, the women reported 12.8 metabolic equivalents (METs) of exercise. Low levels of self-efficacy and social support for exercise were also reported. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with barriers to exercise (r = .35, P < .01), and barriers were inversely related to exercise METs (r = –.37, P < .05). Barriers to activity and education level were significant determinants of exercise.

Conclusions:

Women with depressive symptoms report minimal exercise involvement, numerous barriers to exercise, and low exercise self-efficacy and social support for exercise.

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

differences between these populations exist. Mood and Anxiety Disorders Other differentiating markers of mental health, such as mood and anxiety disorders, are also poorly understood among athlete and non-athlete populations with EDs. Depression and anxiety are reportedly lower in athletes than non

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Iñigo Mujika

communication with the author. CHO = carbohydrate; HCHO = high carbohydrate; LCHF = low carbohydrate, high fat; W = average power output. Subjective Well-Being The athlete reported that the months on the LCHF diet were mentally very tough: He had many psychic slumps and some feelings of depression. He

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Joanna Edel McHugh and Brian A. Lawlor

Background:

Perceived health status does not always reflect actual health status. We investigated the association between objective and self-rated measures of health status and hours of exercise per week in older adults.

Method:

As part of the TRIL clinic assessment, we gathered information from 473 community dwelling adults over the age of 65, regarding hours spent per week exercising, depression, personality, perceived health status, and objective health status (in the form of a comorbidity count). Regression analyses were performed on these data to investigate whether perceived health status, objective health status, personality and mood are associated with hours of exercise per week.

Results:

Perceived and objective health status were significantly but weakly correlated. Both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression, were independently associated with hours of exercise per week.

Conclusions:

We conclude that exercise uptake in older adults is contingent on both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression. Perceived health status has a stronger association with exercise uptake in older adults with lower depression levels. The current findings have implications for designing exercise interventions for older adults.

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Robert A. Swoap, Nancy Norvell, James E. Graves and Michael L. Pollock

This study examined the psychological and physiological effects of a 26-week aerobic exercise program on a sample of sedentary older men (n = 26) and women (n = 23). Subjects were randomly assigned to either a high intensity exercise group (80−85% of maximal heart rate reserve), a moderate intensity exercise group (65−70% of maximal heart rate reserve), or a no-exercise control group. Results indicated that subjects in the high intensity exercise group exhibited significant increases in aerobic capacity compared to the moderate intensity group. Both exercising groups improved aerobic capacity and had significant decreases in body weight compared to the control group. Exercising subjects also reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression at the end of the program, but not fewer than the control group. Overall, increases in VO2max were associated with decreases in depression.