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Katherine Reta Devonshire-Gill and Kevin Ian Norton

designed to assess PA engagement comprehensively in these domains via a more relevant format, particularly for developing countries where patterns of energy expenditure differ from high-income countries. 19 Since their inception, these 2 standardized self-report tools have been widely used to monitor

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

Overweight and obese children have now become a public health problem both in European countries and in other developed countries ( Ahrens et al., 2014 ). Lobstein et al. ( 2015 ) have shown that in about 30 years in the United States, the body mass of each child has increased by 5 kg on average

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Pasmore Malambo, Andre P. Kengne, Estelle V. Lambert, Anniza De Villiers and Thandi Puoane

relationship. Our findings are in agreement with some existing studies 41 but not all. 42 One possible explanation of the variation in findings is that some studies have been conducted in developed countries, urban cities than rural settings which have different quality of aesthetics. Thus, individuals in

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Yongwoo Lee, Wonjae Choi, Kyeongjin Lee, Changho Song and Seungwon Lee

more than 65 years is increasing more rapidly compared with other developed countries; the percentage of adults in Korea aged older than 65 years was 5.1% in 1990 and 11% in 2010 and is projected to be 37.4% in 2050 ( Seo, 2009 ). These days, a high quality of life as well as longevity is considered

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Kasper Salin, Mikko Huhtiniemi, Anthony Watt, Harto Hakonen and Timo Jaakkola

Research has detailed that insufficient levels of physical activity (PA) and excessive levels of sedentary time (ST) have become a major concern in developed countries. 1 , 2 As a result of insufficient PA and excessive calorie intake, the obesity epidemic among children has become a crucial major

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Johan Pelssers, Emalie Hurkmans, Jeroen Scheerder, Norbert Vanbeselaere, Steven Vos, Tim Smits and Filip Boen

For decades, life expectancy has increased steadily in developed countries ( World Health Organization, 2006 ). Consequently, the number of older adults will increase accordingly. Aging is associated with higher risks of chronic disorders. Studies have shown that a sufficient level of physical

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Elena López-Cañada, José Devís-Devís, Alexandra Valencia-Peris, Sofía Pereira-García, Jorge Fuentes-Miguel and Víctor Pérez-Samaniego

, Schöppe S . The Health Benefits of Physical Activity in Developing Countries . Geneva, Switzerland : World Health Organization ; 2005 . 2. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee (PAGAC) . Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report . Washington, DC : Department of Health and

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Xihe Zhu and Justin A. Haegele

the pandemic of obesity in developing countries . Nutrition Reviews, 70 , 3 – 21 . PubMed ID: 22221213 doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00456.x 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00456.x Raudenbush , S.W. , & Bryk , A.S. ( 2002 ). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods

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Trent J. Herda, Philip M. Gallagher, Jonathan D. Miller, Matthew P. Bubak and Mandy E. Parra

. Ultrasound Med Biol . 2009 ; 35 ( 3 ): 443 – 6 . PubMed ID: 19081667 doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2008.09.016 19081667 37. Popkin BM , Adair LS , Ng SW . Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries . Nutr Rev . 2012 ; 70 ( 1 ): 3 – 21 . PubMed ID: 22221213

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Karen Tonge, Rachel A. Jones and Anthony D. Okely

track into childhood and beyond, providing long-term health benefits. 2 In developed countries, a large proportion of young children attend some type of early childhood education and care (ECEC) center for extended periods. 3 For example, more than half of children in the United States spend an average