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Norah M. Nelson and Catherine B. Woods

Background:

Active commuting (AC) to school can increase daily minutes of physical activity yet research is lacking on its determinants. This study examined perceptions of the physical environment as a correlate of AC among adolescents.

Methods:

Cross-sectional data were collected from 1143 males and 1016 females (mean age 16.04 ± 0.66) who lived within 2.5 miles of their school. Participants’ self-reported active (walk or cycle) or inactive (car, bus, or train) mode of travel to school and perceptions of their neighborhood environment. Bivariate logistic regression examined perceived environmental features associated with active versus inactive modes, adjusted for sociodemographic factors. Significant variables were examined in multivariate models, adjusted for population density and distance.

Results:

Positive correlates of AC included well-lit streets, land-use-mix diversity, access to shops/public transport, the presence of public parks/bike lanes, and accessible well-maintained paths. Connectivity was unrelated to mode choice. In multivariate analyses, land-use-mix diversity, and the perceived presence of public parks remained significant among males, whereas excess traffic speed, shops within walking distance, and paths separate from the road remained significant among females.

Conclusions:

Environmental characteristics were associated with active commuting to school, however research must address methodological issues before making recommendations for intervention.

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Agnes Elling, Paul De Knop and Annelies Knoppers

The diversity of sport participants in the Netherlands is beginning to reflect the diversity within the general population. Sport as a whole is becoming more accessible, and participation in sport of different social groups takes place within both mainstream and “separate” sports clubs and in differently organized sports groups. In our paper we critically analyze the broader social integrative functions ascribed to sport by policy makers. We attempt to show that the ongoing democratization of sport participation is not always positively correlated, let alone causally related, to a broader social integrated society. We argue that social integration in itself is a multidimensional process and distinguish three dimensions of integration (structural, social-cultural, and social-affective), which can all occur in and through the practice of sport. Furthermore we argue that the integrative meanings of sport depend on which social groups and which of the dimensions of integration are examined. The complementary and contradictory aspects of the dimensions of social integration with regard to four different social minority groups (ethnic minorities, the elderly, the physically challenged, gays and lesbians) are examined.

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Paul Jansma and Paul Surburg

This paper focuses on competency guidelines related to adapted physical education Ph.D. professional preparation in the United States with an emphasis on educational models and different orientations applicable to doctoral professional preparation. Key literature and related information are provided on teacher reform, standards, and competencies, with an emphasis on adapted physical education. The method of development, refinement, validation, and endorsement of the doctoral competencies over the course of this 6-year project precedes the listing of the final 79 competencies across two generic areas (adapted physical educator, researcher) and four other competency areas (administrator, movement scientist, advocate, pedagogue). The paper concludes with a discussion of quality control, doctoral program commonality and diversity, future competency guideline refinement efforts, and postgraduation professional development.

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Alan Bairner

This article examines the proposals of a ministerial advisory panel that was set up in 2000 to examine the problems confronting soccer in Northern Ireland, not least of which is that the game has been perceived to be administered by and for Ulster unionists. It is argued that although the panel made the case for a more inclusive soccer culture, which would be welcome to Irish nationalists, this advice is at odds with the central message of the Good Friday Agreement, the cornerstone of the peace process. Far from promoting a centrist political culture, the Agreement has actually increased polarization. Reflecting on wider debates on cultural diversity, the article argues that it is difficult to convince sports administrators to accept responsibility for promoting social inclusion in a political context in which difference is celebrated and sectarianism institutionalized.

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Larena Hill and Lisa M. Kikulis

This research examines the dynamics of strategic decision making within the western Canadian university athletic system. Using a framework developed from the Bradford studies (Hickson, Butler, Cray, Mallory, & Wilson, 1986) and Butler (1991), we focused on three key elements of decision making; complexity, politically, and the rules of the game. Using these concepts, this paper presents a case study analysis of the decision process that centered around the potential restructuring of the Canada West University Athletic Association and the Great Plains Athletic Conference. Qualitative research methods were used to collect and analyze data from documents and interview transcripts. The results show that the diversity of interests, level of influence, and both the constraining and enabling rules of the game contribute to the way the decision topic of restructuring was interpreted, what behaviors were enacted, and how the decision making process emerged to deal with this topic.

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Matthew Atencio, Becky Beal and Emily Chivers Yochim

The recent emergence of “skurban” (the fusion of skateboarding and urban) reflects the racially diverse history and culture of skateboarding within urban areas in the United States. Skurban follows on from skateboarding’s integral link with the urban since the 1980s. We aver that urban skateboarding is now underpinned by proliferating racial formations that reproduce a version of masculine authenticity that is highly marketable. Through our interrogation of two mainstream media skate videos featuring Stevie Williams and Paul Rodriguez, we propose that skurban reflects the ascendancy of highly valued urban racial masculinities. These masculinities enhance youth and action sport brand marketing strategies. Simultaneously, these diverse racial masculinities gain currency in alignment with discourses of individual entrepreneurialism, “free market” capitalism, and multicultural notions of diversity.

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Mary B. Harris and Joy Griffin

In order to assess their cultural stereotypes and personal beliefs about women physical education teachers, we surveyed 196 individuals attending the 1995 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) convention. Respondents felt that most Americans stereotyped women physical educators as masculine, aggressive, athletic, lesbian, and unintellectual. Their personal views were less extreme. Some differences in personal beliefs were found between men and women, and between lesbians, heterosexual men and heterosexual women. Occupation, age, and education were not importantly related to stereotyping. Open ended questions revealed both positive and negative aspects of physical education as a profession for women. Based upon the continued existence of some negative stereotypes, coupled with the low status of women physical educators, we suggest that the profession needs to increase its educational efforts and its appreciation of diversity.

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Diane L. Gill

Feminist sport psychology encompasses many approaches and has many variations. The articles in this special issue reflect that variation but also reflect common themes outlined in this introductory article. The feminist framework for this article begins with bell hooks’ (2000) inclusive, action-oriented definition of feminism as “a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression” (p. viii). The following themes, drawn from feminist theory and sport studies scholarship, provide the supporting structure: (a) gender is relational rather than categorical; (b) gender is inextricably linked with race/ethnicity, class, and other social identities; (c) gender and cultural relations involve power and privilege; and (d) feminism demands action. Gender scholarship in sport psychology is reviewed noting recent moves toward feminist approaches and promising directions that incorporate cultural diversity and relational analyses to move toward feminist practice. The other articles in this issue reflect similar feminist themes and present unique contributions to guide us toward feminist sport psychology.

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George B. Cunningham and Michael Sagas

Whereas previous research has demonstrated racial differences in occupational turnover intent, why such differences exist remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this Research Note was to examine perceived opportunity, career satisfaction, and occupational turnover intent of racial-minority and White NCAA Division I-A assistant football coaches (N = 382). Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that racial minorities perceived less career-related opportunity, were less satisfied with their careers, and had greater occupational turnover intentions than their White counterparts. Structural equation modeling indicated that career satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between perceived opportunity and occupational turnover intent. Results highlight the need for a change in the organizational culture of intercollegiate athletic departments such that diversity is valued and embraced.

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Glyn Hughes

This article explores the intersection of representation, management, and race in the National Basketball Association (NBA) through a larger question on the relationship between corporate strategies for managing racialized subjects and popular representations of race. The NBA “brand”is situated in terms of recent developments in corporate and popular culture and then analyzed as an example of diversity management. Relying on original interviews with NBA corporate employees, as well as business and marketing industry reporting, the article analyzes the NBA as simultaneously an organization and a brand. As such, the NBA helps to “articulate” the corporate with the popular, largely through an implied racial project that manages race relations by continuing to equate corporate interests with Whiteness. The analysis contributes to ongoing discussions about the role of sports in perpetuating social disparities based on race at a time when “colorblindness” remains the paradigm of White approaches to race.