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Keishi Soga, Keita Kamijo and Hiroaki Masaki

. Second, Schmidt-Kassow et al. ( 2013 ) conducted the same two experimental sessions to examine whether familiarization with the dual-task situation (i.e., exercise and encoding) influenced the effects of doing aerobic exercise during encoding on memory function. They indicated that aerobic exercise

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Michelle R. Tanel, Tyler B. Weaver and Andrew C. Laing

across feet, and COP location, were standardized. Although the real-time feedback provided to participants to standardize these baseline factors may have contributed toward a dual-task paradigm, the benefits of reduced variability and potential anticipatory strategies were considered to outweigh any

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Michiel Punt, Sjoerd M. Bruijn, Ingrid G. van de Port, Ilona J.M. de Rooij, Harriet Wittink and Jaap H. van Dieën

, after several training sessions, participants received an additional task, a visual Stroop task together with the gait perturbations. This Stroop task functioned as a cognitive dual task, which made the training session more challenging and was aimed at establishing a more automated response after gait

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A. Mark Williams and Bradley Fawver

-report measures) and using dual-task paradigms to identify changes in efficiency (and effectiveness) during acquisition. Surprisingly, the extent to which changes in efficiency and effectiveness are correlated during skill acquisition has not been examined empirically to date, yet both should be considered in

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Aisha Chen, Sandhya Selvaraj, Vennila Krishnan and Shadnaz Asgari

: 26033346 doi:10.1123/jab.2014-0222 6. Uemura K , Yamada M , Nagai K , et al . Effects of dual-task switch exercise on gait and gait initiation performance in older adults: preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial . Arch Gerontol Geriatr . 2012 ; 54 ( 2 ): e167 – e171 . PubMed ID

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Christopher J. Nightingale, Sidney N. Mitchell and Stephen A. Butterfield

). Effects of single and dual tasks during walking on spatiotemporal gait parameters of community-dwelling older . Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 29 ( 10 ), 1874 – 1877 . PubMed ID: 29184310 doi:10.1589/jpts.29.1874 10.1589/jpts.29.1874 Lienhard , K. , Schneider , D. , & Maffuletti , N

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Steven Nagib and Shelley W. Linens

Inventory score is highly correlated with markers of gait disturbance . Otol Neurotol . 2017 ; 38 ( 10 ): 1490 – 1499 . PubMed ID: 28984811 doi:10.1097/MAO.0000000000001586 10.1097/MAO.0000000000001586 28984811 13. Howell DR , Osternig LR , Chou LS . Dual-task effect on gait balance control in

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Dustin R. Grooms, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Jonathan D. Ellis, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Christopher A. DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Brooke Gadd, Kim D. Barber Foss, Weihong Yuan, Paula Silva, Ryan Galloway, Jed A. Diekfuss, James Leach, Kate Berz and Gregory D. Myer

muscle or motor performance but considering visual–spatial or sensory challenges to add difficulty, this could include stroboscopic training, 19 dual tasking, perturbation training, or even isolated neurocognitive training to improve visual–spatial abilities. Additionally, the use of neural stimulation

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Ian McGinnis, Justin Cobb, Ryan Tierney and Anne Russ

objects, juggling, n/a Head movement direction Still, yaw, pitch, roll, n/a Whole-body movement direction Anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, multi-directional Visual input Eyes closed, eyes open, complex patterns, n/a Cognitive dual task Yes, no Special circumstances Specific parameters for exercises (e