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Nessan Costello, Jim McKenna, Louise Sutton, Kevin Deighton and Ben Jones

). Finally, the athlete also reported no symptoms of illness across the intervention period, attending all 61 training sessions. Collectively, these results suggest that the average 24.5 MJ daily energy intake of the athlete, although 0.6 MJ less than targeted, was sufficient to meet energy availability

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

adequate energy availability unless a separate strategy is undertaken to manipulate this. BM = body mass; CHO = carbohydrate; IMTG = intramuscular triglycerides; PDH = pyruvate dehydrogenase; LCHF = low-carbohydrate high-fat diet; K-LCHF = ketogenic low-carbohydrate high-fat diet; NK-LCHF = nonketogenic

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Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

energy availability, which in turn may inhibit erythropoietic adaptation to altitude, as well as overall health and well-being ( Heikura et al., 2018 ; McLean et al., 2013a ). Athletes are advised to maintain a balanced diet and support training with appropriate fuel and fluid intake. Hydration

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Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes and Guilherme G. Artioli

detrimental effects on growth and maturation due to sustained periods of low energy availability ( Loucks et al., 2011 ). Furthermore, RWL is associated with abnormal eating behaviors ( Oppliger et al., 2003 ), and weight-category athletes display a higher prevalence of eating disorders ( Sundgot

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

(DEBs) influence energy availability and increase the risk of a health syndrome known as “Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport” or “RED-S” ( Mountjoy et al., 2017 ). RED-S occurs when energy expenditure exceeds energy intake, creating an energy deficiency and a resulting compromise in health systems

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R. Cox, Ian C. Dunican and Louise M. Burke

represents a mild energy restriction of ∼14–18 kJ·kg·FFM −1 , maintaining moderate energy availability ( Loucks, 2004 ) such as protein: 2.2–2.5 g·kg·FFM −1 , carbohydrate: 5–6 g·kg·BM −1 and fat: 1–2 g·kg·BM −1 . Sodium prescription was ∼300 mg/MJ and fiber 10–13 g, representing a reduced residue diet

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Ben-El Berkovich, Aliza H. Stark, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Tali Sinai

. Evidence of negative consequences of low-energy availability on physical performance has been reported ( Mountjoy et al., 2018 ). Therefore, restricting dietary intake prior to competition may reduce an athlete’s overall abilities, despite the potential advantages of participating in a preferred weight

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Hani Kopetschny, David Rowlands, David Popovich and Jasmine Thomson

, B. , & Wright , H. ( 2011 ). Energy availability in athletes . Journal of Sports Sciences, 29 ( Suppl. 1 ), S7 – S15 . PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.588958 10.1080/02640414.2011.588958 Mason , G. , & Lamarche , B. ( 2016 ). Many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

immunodepression can occur as a result of strenuous exercise ( Castell et al., 2019 ; Peake et al., 2017 ), and a high incidence of upper respiratory tract illness is frequently reported ( Drew et al., 2018 ; Nieman, 1994 ), before and particularly after endurance events. Low-energy availability has been

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Mònica Solana-Tramunt, Jose Morales, Bernat Buscà, Marina Carbonell and Lara Rodríguez-Zamora

.0b013e3182a20ee7 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182a20ee7 23820563 8. Schaal K , Tiollier E , Le Meur Y , Casazza G , Hausswirth C . Elite synchronized swimmers display decreased energy availability during intensified training . Scand J Med Sci Sport . 2017 ; 27 ( 9 ): 925 – 934 . doi:10