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Hani Kopetschny, David Rowlands, David Popovich and Jasmine Thomson

, B. , & Wright , H. ( 2011 ). Energy availability in athletes . Journal of Sports Sciences, 29 ( Suppl. 1 ), S7 – S15 . PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.588958 10.1080/02640414.2011.588958 Mason , G. , & Lamarche , B. ( 2016 ). Many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R. Cox, Ian C. Dunican and Louise M. Burke

represents a mild energy restriction of ∼14–18 kJ·kg·FFM −1 , maintaining moderate energy availability ( Loucks, 2004 ) such as protein: 2.2–2.5 g·kg·FFM −1 , carbohydrate: 5–6 g·kg·BM −1 and fat: 1–2 g·kg·BM −1 . Sodium prescription was ∼300 mg/MJ and fiber 10–13 g, representing a reduced residue diet

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

(DEBs) influence energy availability and increase the risk of a health syndrome known as “Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport” or “RED-S” ( Mountjoy et al., 2017 ). RED-S occurs when energy expenditure exceeds energy intake, creating an energy deficiency and a resulting compromise in health systems

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

immunodepression can occur as a result of strenuous exercise ( Castell et al., 2019 ; Peake et al., 2017 ), and a high incidence of upper respiratory tract illness is frequently reported ( Drew et al., 2018 ; Nieman, 1994 ), before and particularly after endurance events. Low-energy availability has been

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Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems and Darryn S. Willoughby

College of Sports Medicine’s position stand, the tendency for female athletes to exhibit low-energy availability and restrictive eating behaviors was identified as a special concern ( Nattiv et al., 2007 ). The better nutritional status seen among macronutrient-based dieting females is likely due to

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Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen

negatively ( Armstrong et al., 1985 ). However, the effect of slight hypohydration on performance seems trivial at temperatures of ∼8 °C (Day 8; Murray, 2007 ). Regardless, the loss of body mass was not different between groups, and the energy availability was standardized across groups. Surprisingly

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Mathew Hillier, Louise Sutton, Lewis James, Dara Mojtahedi, Nicola Keay and Karen Hind

suppress menstrual function, and in this study, one third of women athletes reported amenorrhea in the last 12 months. It is possible that this figure is an underestimation because women using oral contraceptives were not excluded from the study. Low energy availability and disruption of menstrual

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Mònica Solana-Tramunt, Jose Morales, Bernat Buscà, Marina Carbonell and Lara Rodríguez-Zamora

.0b013e3182a20ee7 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182a20ee7 23820563 8. Schaal K , Tiollier E , Le Meur Y , Casazza G , Hausswirth C . Elite synchronized swimmers display decreased energy availability during intensified training . Scand J Med Sci Sport . 2017 ; 27 ( 9 ): 925 – 934 . doi:10

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James R. Broatch, David J. Bishop and Shona Halson

energy turnover in a short period of time, which when combined with incomplete recovery periods places considerable demands on short-term energy systems. 3 – 6 For example, a rapid decrease in energy availability via phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate and anaerobic glycolysis, and the

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Rachel Lohman, Amelia Carr and Dominique Condo

. Further research in Australian football is warranted to calculate energy availability, which, in athletes, more precisely evaluates energy expenditure from exercise in the context of energy intake ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). In the current investigation, carbohydrate intake for both elite and sub