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Raymond L. Schmitt

The introduction of “replacement teams” into the social world of NFL football during the 1987 strike stimulated a laminated language, a language that transformed traditional meanings by linking varying social definitions to one another. Emergent content analysis of extensive newspaper, sport magazine and newsmagazine, and live television and radio accounts was used to inductively study this language. Power, media, and social structure impacted on the various language terms that were created. Laminated language protected, rejected, accepted, satirically extended, and integrated definitions. Various ways in which the recognition of laminated language may be used to enhance the use of Goffman’s framing concepts and leads in the sociological study of everyday life are offered.

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David E. Conroy and Lorna Smith Benjamin

Psychodynamic concepts have only recently begun to attract serious attention in the sport psychology literature. A dynamically based, interpersonal approach to sport psychology consultation is outlined in this article. Key interpersonal constructs such as important persons and their internalized representations (IPIRs), copy processes, and self-sacrificing gifts of love are described to portray how a case formulation may be developed to explain and guide interventions to overcome some performance problems. Two cases, one involving a performance phobia and the other an enduring slump related to a fear of success, are presented to demonstrate the unique contributions of interpersonal case formulations in performance enhancement consultation.

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Harvey A. Dorfman

This article describes the delivery of personal and performance enhancement consulting services to the major league and minor league teams in the Oakland Athletics baseball organization over a 6-year period. The use of a combined clinical, educational approach is discussed as well as the range and type of services provided in the role as a full-time instructor/counselor. Factors affecting the effectiveness of delivering sport psychology services to professional baseball players are discussed, with special emphasis on developing trust and a good connection in the player/consultant relationship.

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David Collins, Michael Doherty and Steven Talbot

Using an exemplar case study of an intervention completed in the sport of motocross, the authors attempt to demonstrate the advantages inherent in using integrated multidisciplinary approaches in the application of sport sciences to performance enhancement. The need for comprehensive, detailed, and well-planned interventions, which of necessity take time to both set up and implement, is also highlighted. In addition, the authors furnish examples of practical techniques that can be used to facilitate cognitive behavioral strategies in this type of sport. Implications for the preparation and training of applied sport psychology consultants are briefly discussed.

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Zhang Li-Wei, Ma Qi-Wei, Terry Orlick and Louise Zitzelsberger

Field studies investigating the potential benefit of mental-imagery training with young children have been lacking in the literature. The purpose of this investigation was to shed light on the appropriateness of mental training for children. Three groups of 7–10-year-old table tennis players participated in this study to assess the value of mental-imagery training, specifically with respect to children’s performance enhancement. The results indicated that children who used mental imagery experienced significantly greater improvement in the accuracy and technical quality of their shots than children in comparison groups. This study suggests that mental-imagery training, combined with videotaped images and relaxation, may be particularly promising for children.

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Amy B. Cadwallader and Bob Murray

Whenever athletes willfully or accidentally ingest performance-enhancing drugs or other banned substances (such as drugs of abuse), markers of those drugs can be detected in biological samples (e.g., biofluids: urine, saliva, blood); in the case of some drugs, that evidence can be apparent for many weeks following the last exposure to the drug. In addition to the willful use of prohibited drugs, athletes can accidentally ingest banned substances in contaminated dietary supplements or foods and inadvertently fail a drug test that could mean the end of an athletic career and the loss of a good reputation. The proliferation of performance-enhancing drugs and methods has required a corresponding increase in the analytical tools and methods required to identify the presence of banned substances in biofluids. Even though extraordinary steps have been taken by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency to limit the use of prohibited substances and methods by athletes willing to cheat, it is apparent that some athletes continue to avoid detection by using alternative doping regimens or taking advantage of the limitations in testing methodologies. This article reviews the testing standards and analytical techniques underlying the procedures used to identify banned substances in biological samples, setting the stage for future summaries of the testing required to establish the use of steroids, stimulants, diuretics, and other prohibited substances.

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Marita Södergren, Kristina Sundquist, Sven-Erik Johansson, Jan Sundquist and Maria Hagströmer


The purpose of this study was to examine the association between total self-reported health-enhancing physical activity and country of birth among women living in Sweden.


Women (age 18 to 65 years) born in Sweden, Finland, Chile, and Iraq were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Data were collected by means of a postal questionnaire including the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-long version). Self-reported physical activity data were converted to MET-minutes per week and analyzed as continuous or categorical scores. A total of 2649 women were included in the analyses. The association between physical activity and country of birth was explored using ordinal logistic regression assuming proportional odds.


The total physical activity differed significantly between the countries of birth (P < .001). Women from Finland had significant higher odds and women from Iraq had significantly lower odds for reporting higher levels of physical activity, compared with Swedish-born women.


The direction of the associations between self-reported total health-enhancing physical activity varied by country of birth, which underlines the need to examine physical activity in each minority group separately.

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Zhongren Sun, Xiaoning Li, Zhiqiang Su, Ying Zhao, Li Zhang and Mingyuan Wu


Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can be differentiated into neuronal cells and are used to treat spinal cord injury (SCI).


This study investigated whether electroacupuncture enhances BMSC’s effects on SCI in rats.


The effects of transplantation of phosphate-buffered saline or BMSC, electroacupuncture, and a combination of BMSC transplantation and electroacupuncture on SCI were evaluated using a combined behavioral score (CBS). Expressions of neuronal marker neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and gliocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) of transplanted BMSC were detected using immunohistochemistry to assess the effect of electroacupuncture on differentiation of BMSC into neuronal cells.


The combination of BMSC transplantation and electroacupuncture significantly alleviated CBS in rats with SCI compared with the separate treatment of BMSC or electroacupuncture. In addition, electroacupuncture increased the NSE- and GFAP-positive transplanted BMSCs in spinal cord.


Combined treatment showed a better effect, and the mechanisms may be partially caused by enhanced differentiation of BMSC into neuronal cells. Future studies are needed to confirm this.

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Zella E. Moore

As long as athletes strive to attain optimal performance states and consistently reach high performance goals, psychological interventions will be used to assist in the development of skill and the maintenance of performance. In the pursuit of these goals, newer evidence-driven models based on mindfulness- and acceptance-based approaches have been designed to achieve these ends. Based upon questionable efficacy data for traditional psychological skills training procedures that emphasize reduction or control of internal processes, mindfulness- and acceptance-based approaches develop skills of nonjudging mindful awareness, mindful attention, and experiential acceptance to aid in the pursuit of valued goals. The most formalized and researched mindfulness- and acceptance-based approach within sport psychology is the manualized Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) protocol. In the 8 years since the MAC was first developed and presented, and the 5 years since the first publication on the protocol, the MAC program has accumulated a continually growing empirical base for both its underlying theory and intervention efficacy as a performance enhancement intervention. This article reviews the empirical and theoretical foundations of the mindfulness- and acceptance-based approaches in general, and MAC in particular; reviews the accumulated empirical findings in support of the MAC approach for performance enhancement; and presents recent MAC developments and suggested future directions.

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Wendy M. Rodgers, Camilla J. Knight, Anne-Marie Selzler, Ian L. Reade and Gregory F. Ryan

The purposes of this study were to, (a) assess motivational experiences of performance enhancement tasks (PET) and administrative tasks (AT), and; (b) examine the relationships of emergent motivational experiences of each task type to coaches’ perceived stress and intentions to continue coaching. In total, 572 coaches completed an online survey, which assessed autonomy, competence, relatedness, and other characteristics of PET and AT, intentions to continue coaching, and perceived stress. Two separate exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were conducted, one for AT and one for PET. This was followed up with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and SEM to examine relationships between emerging factors and stress and intentions. The factors generated for PET reflected ideas of autonomy, time conflict, and satisfaction, and for AT also included competence, effort, and job requirements. The resulting experiences of AT and PET appear to have different influences on stress and intentions, suggesting their distinction will be important in future work examining coach retention.