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Mark Evans, Peter Tierney, Nicola Gray, Greg Hawe, Maria Macken and Brendan Egan

indicated by a decline in maximal sprint speed with subsequent sprints, that is, an increase in sprint duration over a set distance. Clearly, any ergogenic aid that can attenuate fatigue and maintain RSP in team sport athletes may prove beneficial and warrant use during competition. A wide body of

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Aaron T. Scanlan, Vincent J. Dalbo, Daniele Conte, Emilija Stojanović, Nenad Stojiljković, Ratko Stanković, Vladimir Antić and Zoran Milanović

using total performance time, which is strongly influenced by sprinting speed and is not independently indicative of dribbling speed. 6 Therefore, there is a need to examine the potential ergogenic properties of caffeine on dribbling speed in basketball using sport-specific protocols and measurement

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Martin J. Barwood, Joe Kupusarevic and Stuart Goodall

, any intervention that offsets these disturbances in thermal perception may prove to be ergogenic and influence exercise behavior. 3 One such intervention with the potential to do so is the topical application of menthol to the skin. This has been found to change the action potential of the Transient

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Sunita Potgieter, Hattie H. Wright and Carine Smith

athletes participating in the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championship reported their intention of using caffeine before or during the race, and indeed, postrace plasma caffeine concentrations indicated that the majority of athletes typically finished their race with ergogenic circulating levels of

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Terri Graham-Paulson, Claudio Perret and Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey

Caffeine (CAF) is used by athletes with a physical impairment ( Graham-Paulson et al., 2015a ), yet very few studies have been conducted using trained and elite athletes ( Flueck et al., 2014 , 2015 ), which is understandable given the practicalities involved. Evidence of CAF’s ergogenic effects

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Luana Farias de Oliveira, Bryan Saunders and Guilherme Giannini Artioli

Sodium bicarbonate (SB) is an ergogenic supplement used to increase blood bicarbonate concentration, buffering capacity and, subsequently, high-intensity exercise capacity and performance ( McNaughton et al., 2016 ). There is a body of evidence indicating that SB is an effective ergogenic

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

training and competition demands of jumpers, throwers, and CE athletes (hereafter, referred to collectively as field event athletes), other reviews in this IAAF nutrition consensus series will be referenced, and this review will focus on novel nutrition and ergogenic supplement interventions and strategies

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Philippe Richard and François Billaut

possibility that they could also be ergogenic in sport. 4 Some of the ergogenic effects mediated via RIPC relate to a direct impact on the vasculature. IPC has been found to improve vascular function 5 , 6 and perfusion locally and in the contralateral limb, 5 , 6 thereby confirming the endothelial systemic

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Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

remain unclear, but despite a good rationale for its use, evidence of an ergogenic benefit of tyrosine supplementation during prolonged exercise is limited ( Meeusen & Watson, 2007 ). Carbohydrates and Central Fatigue Another nutritional strategy that may influence the development of central fatigue is

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

before the warm-up athletes should aim to drink 400–600 ml water or sports drink. Timing of prerace snacks and ergogenic aids are important. Eat last meal 1–4 hr prior the warm-up. And follow the guidelines for caffeine, bicarbonate, or nitrate as discussed in this paper. Race tactics is crucial for