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Andreas Apostolidis, Vassilis Mougios, Ilias Smilios, Johanna Rodosthenous and Marios Hadjicharalambous

expenditure = { 4.686 + [ ( RER − 0.707 ) / 0.293 ] × 0.361 } × VO 2 Fat oxidation = ( 1.67 × VO 2 ) − ( 1.67 × VCO 2 ) Carbohydrate oxidation = ( 4.55 × VCO 2 ) − ( 3.21 × VO 2 ) Blood Treatment and Analyses Blood samples were immediately transferred into K 2 EDTA-containing tubes and centrifuged at 4000 rpm

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

fat oxidation . Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, 34 ( 1 ), 92 – 97 . PubMed ID: 11782653 doi:10.1097/00005768-200201000-00015 10.1097/00005768-200201000-00015 Areta , J.L. , & Hopkins , W.G. ( 2018 ). Skeletal muscle glycogen content at rest and during endurance exercise in humans: A

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Ralph Beneke, Tobias G.J. Weber and Renate M. Leithäuser

cadences at low-exercise-intensity training, which is frequently seen in high-performance cyclists, may increase fat oxidation combined with preservation of CHO at given metabolic rates and/or BLC levels. However, the previously observed within-subjects effects of set differences in rpm on MLSS (1.1 ± 0

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Adam M. Hyde, Robert G. McMurray, Frank A. Chavoya and Daniela A. Rubin

the participants with PWS were on GHRT and had well-controlled body mass making the characteristics of this group of children with PWS more comparable to the NW controls. GHRT could have affected ventilatory responses and fat oxidation, but we did not test for the effects of GHRT. It would be

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Daniel Arvidsson, Elias Johannesson, Lars Bo Andersen, Magnus Karlsson, Per Wollmer, Ola Thorsson and Magnus Dencker

balance. It has been shown that muscle cells produce and use BDNF as a response to muscle contraction enhancing fat oxidation. 5 NGF, on the other hand, may have a general alerting effect on the body and thereby stimulates increase in metabolism. 6 Platelet concentration and serum BDNF increase with age

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Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

needed to confirm no differences between the sexes. A recent study by Strauss et al. ( 2018 ) replicated for females findings by Cook, Myers, Gault, Edwards and Willems ( 2017a ) in males of increased fat oxidation by NZBC during 120-min cycling at 65% V ˙ O 2 max ; therefore, increased exercise

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Rachel B. Parks, Hector F. Angus, Douglas S. King and Rick L. Sharp

sprints, euglycemia and improved fat oxidation were again observed ( Baur et al., 2016 ). Serum glucose was 20% lower prior to exercise, compared to a sucrose/glucose supplement. Of note, consumption of starch at rates of 30 and 60 g/h was associated with nausea and abdominal cramps. Digestive symptoms

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Samuel T. Tebeck, Jonathan D. Buckley, Clint R. Bellenger and Jamie Stanley

.55 (−0.98 to −0.12) b  GE, % 19.8 (0.9) 19.8 (0.8) 0.08 (−0.22 to 0.39) 19.4 (1.3) 20.2 (1.0) 0.55 (0.13 to 0.96) b  EE, kcal·min −1 15.3 (1.7) 15.4 (1.8) −0.16 (−0.22 to 0.22) 15.2 (1.3) 15.3 (1.5) 0.05 (−0.13 to 0.22)  Fat oxidation, g·min −1 0.6 (0.2) 0.5 (0.2) −0.21 (−0.77 to 0.35) 0.6 (0.2) 0.5 (0

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Julien Tripette, Haruka Murakami, Hidemi Hara, Ryoko Kawakami, Yuko Gando, Harumi Ohno, Nobuyuki Miyatake and Motohiko Miyachi

against noncommunicable diseases ( Schrader et al., 2013 , 2014 ). In addition, caffeine consumed before a submaximal exercise has been linked to greater energy deficit and fat oxidation, suggesting that caffeine could help in weight maintenance interventions ( Schubert et al., 2014 ). Thus, if these

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Arthur H. Bossi, Wouter P. Timmerman and James G. Hopker

estimates. 6 Accordingly, Kipp et al 6 recommended that researchers use Péronnet and Massicotte 7 for its meticulous account of the energy provided from glucose and fat oxidation, based on the latest chemical and physical data available at their time. However, the extent to which different EE equations