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Julien Tripette, Haruka Murakami, Hidemi Hara, Ryoko Kawakami, Yuko Gando, Harumi Ohno, Nobuyuki Miyatake and Motohiko Miyachi

against noncommunicable diseases ( Schrader et al., 2013 , 2014 ). In addition, caffeine consumed before a submaximal exercise has been linked to greater energy deficit and fat oxidation, suggesting that caffeine could help in weight maintenance interventions ( Schubert et al., 2014 ). Thus, if these

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Arthur H. Bossi, Wouter P. Timmerman and James G. Hopker

estimates. 6 Accordingly, Kipp et al 6 recommended that researchers use Péronnet and Massicotte 7 for its meticulous account of the energy provided from glucose and fat oxidation, based on the latest chemical and physical data available at their time. However, the extent to which different EE equations

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

.D. , Myers , S.D. , Blacker , S.D. , & Willems , M.E. ( 2015 ). New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists . European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115 ( 11 ), 2357 – 2365 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s00421-015-3215-8 10.1007/s00421-015-3215-8 Cooper , R

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Hermann Zbinden-Foncea, Isabel Rada, Jesus Gomez, Marco Kokaly, Trent Stellingwerff, Louise Deldicque and Luis Peñailillo

neurotransmitters. 10 Beyond those effects on the central nervous system, it has also been suggested that high caffeine doses spares glycogen utilization by increasing fat oxidation and boosts β-endorphins and catecholamine release. 11 Furthermore, caffeine has evidenced improvements in force production by

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Stephen A. Mears, Kathryn Dickinson, Kurt Bergin-Taylor, Reagan Dee, Jack Kay and Lewis J. James

) compared with the PLA trial (2.41 [0.53] g·min −1 ; P  < .0001); however, during the WAT trial (2.82 [0.48] g·min −1 ), carbohydrate oxidation was similar to the 2 other trials ( P  = .088 vs PLA; P  = .148 vs CHO). Fat oxidation was greater in the PLA trial (0.52 [0.23] g·min −1 ) compared with the CHO

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Ida S. Svendsen, Espen Tønnesen, Leif Inge Tjelta and Stein Ørn

number of physiological characteristics have been found to differentiate professional senior road cyclists from elite amateur cyclists. These include a higher second ventilatory threshold expressed as a percentage of maximal oxygen uptake, a greater reliance on fat oxidation at high power outputs

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Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Rhys D. Evans and Kieran Clarke

). Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise performance in healthy adult males . Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 42 ( 10 ), 1031 – 1035 . PubMed ID: 28750585 doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0641 10.1139/apnm-2016-0641 Peart , D.J. , Siegler , J.C. , & Vince

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

availability ( Burke et al., 2017 ). Meanwhile, both dietary approaches were associated with better race outcomes than chronic (3.5 week) exposure to a ketogenic low CHO, high-fat diet, despite its achievement of substantial (∼2.5 ×) increases in muscle fat oxidation ( Burke et al., 2017 ). This contrasts with

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Andrew J. Carnes and Sara E. Mahoney

affect fat oxidation and/or glycogen degradation at prolonged submaximal intensities. Further research is needed to elucidate how physiologic adaptations differ between CFE and POL, and from a practical perspective how this could impact their effect on events >5 km. Differences between CFE and POL could

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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester and Jonathan P. Folland

fat metabolism by repeated bouts of moderate endurance exercise . J Appl Physiol . 2007 ; 102 : 2158 – 2164 . PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01302.2006 17317872 10.1152/japplphysiol.01302.2006 37. Achten J , Jeukendup AE . Optimising fat oxidation through exercise and diet . Nutrition