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Justine B. Allen and Bruce L. Howe

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between athlete ability and coach feedback with perceived competence and satisfaction among female adolescent athletes. Athletes (N = 123) reported their perceptions of coaches' use of feedback, their own field hockey competence, and satisfaction with the coach and team involvement. In addition, coaches' ratings of athletes' ability were obtained. Analyses revealed that both ability and coach feedback were significantly related to perceived competence and satisfaction. Specifically, a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that higher ability, more frequent praise and information, and less frequent encouragement and corrective information were related to higher perceived competence. Further, a canonical correlation analysis revealed that higher ability, frequent praise and information after a good performance, and frequent encouragement and corrective information after an error were associated with greater satisfaction with the coach and team involvement. The results are discussed in relation to Harter's (1978) competence motivation theory).

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Nicola J. Hodges, Sheri J. Cunningham, James Lyons, Tracey L. Kerr and Digby Elliott

Frith and Frith (1974) suggested that adults with Down syndrome have difficulty planning goal-directed movements and therefore are more reliant on feedback than other mentally disabled people. The purpose of the study was to examine this hypothesis directly through the manipulation of visual feedback. Twelve adults with Down syndrome, 12 mentally disabled adults without Down syndrome, and 12 nondisabled adults performed simple aiming movements to targets of three different diameters. While the target was always visible, on half the trial blocks vision of the movement was occluded upon response initiation. Subjects with Down syndrome exhibited longer movement times than other subjects, regardless of vision condition. In terms of target-aiming consistency, subjects with Down syndrome were actually less affected by the elimination of visual feedback than subjects in the other mentally disabled group. While adults with mental disabilities appear to be more reliant on visual feedback for the control of goal-directed movement, this dependence is not a specific characteristic of Down syndrome.

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Charles B. Corbin, Michael J. Stewart and William O. Blair

Lenney (1977) suggests that three situational factors are likely to affect the self-confidence of females in achievement situations. These factors are the sex orientation of the task, social comparison, and the need for performance feedback. In this study, 40 children, 20 of each sex, were studied to determine if the self-confidence of young females in their motor performance abilities was affected by Lenney's third situational variable, performance feedback. Presumably, females need feedback about their performance if they are to attain and/or maintain adequate self-confidence levels. The experiment was designed to control the first two factors: sex orientation of the task and social comparison. Results indicated that when performing a task perceived to be “neutral” in sex orientation in a noncompetitive, noncomparative environment, the self-confidence of young girls did not differ from young boys. In the absence of Lenney's (1977) first two factors, girls did not seem to lack self-confidence nor did they seem to be more dependent on performance feedback than boys.

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Niilo Konttinen, Kaisu Mononen, Jukka Viitasalo and Toni Mets

This study examined the effectiveness of augmented auditory feedback on the performance and learning of a precision shooting task. Participants included Finnish conscripts (N = 30) who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: auditory feedback group (AFb), knowledge-of-results group (KR), and nontraining control group (Control). Data collection consisted of a pretest, a 4-week acquisition phase, a posttest, and two tests of retention. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated in terms of performance outcome, i.e., shooting result. Concurrent auditory feedback related to rife stability did not facilitate shooting performance in a practice situation. In the posttest and retention tests, the participants in the AFb group displayed more accurate shooting performance than those in the KR and Control groups. Findings suggest that a non-elite shooter’s performance can be improved with a 4-week auditory feedback treatment. Given that the learning advantage persisted for delayed retention tests, the observed improvement in skill acquisition was due to relatively permanent variables rather than to temporary effects.

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Athanasios Mouratidis, Willy Lens and Maarten Vansteenkiste

We relied on self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) to investigate to what extent autonomy-supporting corrective feedback (i.e., feedback that coaches communicate to their athletes after poor performance or mistakes) is associated with athletes’ optimal motivation and well-being. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study with 337 (67.1% males) Greek adolescent athletes (age M = 15.59, SD = 2.37) from various sports. Aligned with SDT, we found through path analysis that an autonomy-supporting versus controlling communication style was positively related to future intentions to persist and well-being and negatively related to ill-being. These relations were partially mediated by the perceived legitimacy of the corrective feedback (i.e., the degree of acceptance of corrective feedback), and, in turn, by intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and external regulation for doing sports. Results indicate that autonomy-supporting feedback can be still motivating even in cases in which such feedback conveys messages of still too low competence.

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Shamsi S. Monfared, Gershon Tenenbaum, Jonathan R. Folstein and K. Anders Ericsson

Feedback is critical for multiple aspects of performance in sports and everyday tasks. One fundamental role of feedback is to allow anticipation of the outcome of an action. Anticipation requires athletes to pay attention to internal (e.g., sensory information) or external (e.g., opponent’s body

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Thomas Wandzilak, Ronald J. Bonnstetter and Lynn L. Mortensen

In order for university professors to become more effective at the practice of teaching, they must be provided with accurate, multidimensional feedback on what transpires in their own classes. The Teaching Feedback Model (TFM) is a process that combines the systematic observation of student and teacher behaviors with an analysis of student learning. Based on information provided by the coding of videotaped classroom episodes through a computer program and student learning data, a profile is constructed that informs the teacher whether continuity exists among what is supposed to occur (planning), what actually occurs (doing), and what the student has gained from the class (learning). The purpose of this paper is to present this model in detail and to demonstrate how it is currently being used in college-level physical education theory classes.

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Darian T. Cheng, Gerome A. Manson, Andrew Kennedy and Luc Tremblay

Cheng et al. (2008) showed that when goal-directed reaching movements are performed with a 2.5 s inter-trial interval (ITI) under a randomized visual feedback schedule, individuals use online visual information on trial n to perform efficient online corrections on trial n + 1 (i.e., “reminiscence” effect). These results persisted even when participants were given knowledge of the up-coming vision condition. In this study, the ITI was extended to 5 s in an attempt to negate any effects of the preceding trial. Results from this study revealed that trials with vision were always more accurate than trials performed without vision, suggesting that individuals relied significantly on online information. Furthermore, aiming precision improved when participants knew the vision condition before each trial. It is thus suggested that the reminiscence effects are not longer evident with a 5 s ITI, which in turn allows prior knowledge of visual feedback to influence the use of online vision.

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Bonnie L. Tjeerdsma

The purpose of this study was to directly compare teacher and student expectations for task difficulty and performance, perceptions of actual task difficulty, perceptions of student performance and effort, and perceptions of teacher feedback. Stimulated recall interviews following a 14-lesson volleyball unit were conducted with 8 sixth-grade students and their physical education teacher. The results revealed little congruency between student and teacher perspectives of task difficulty or perceptions of student performance and effort. The students and the teacher agreed the most on expected performance level and the least on perceptions of effort. Such differences in perspectives may be partially explained by the sources of information used by the teacher and students to form their expectations and perceptions. There was somewhat higher agreement between the teacher and students on the purpose of and affective reactions to skill-related feedback.

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David J. Sanderson

The purpose of this experiment was to assess the efficacy of using real-time generated computer feedback of a selected biomechanical variable, force, for modifying the pattern-of-force application of inexperienced cyclists while they cycled at a steady rate (60 rpm) and power output (approximately 112 watts). Positive results would imply that the technique of using biomechanical variables as augmented feedback could be applied in a learning study in such a way to train for the enhancement of performance of cyclists. This approach differs from the traditional one of using novices performing novel tasks. Even though the cyclists were inexperienced, they nonetheless knew how to cycle and thus modifications of the pattern of force application were made to an already existing complex skill.