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Isabel Mayer, Matthias W. Hoppe, Jürgen Freiwald, Rafael Heiss, Martin Engelhardt, Casper Grim, Christoph Lutter, Moritz Huettel, Raimund Forst and Thilo Hotfiel

finding of decreased connective tissue stiffness in EA and a not significant increase in NEA associated with FR could be also explained by changes in the sympathetic nervous system and changed peripheral and central nervous pain perception due to repeated external load and friction. Changes in

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John Strickland and Grant Bevill

other protective conditions, including unprotected (no headgear/facemask, as a “baseline”) and a hockey-style catcher’s mask. Methods The overall test assembly consisted of a Hybrid III 50th percentile male head/neck assembly mounted on a set of low-friction, linear rails. A pneumatic cannon, consisting

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Emma K. Zadow, Cecilia M. Kitic, Sam S.X. Wu and James W. Fell

measured by a dynamic calibration rig (CALRIG, Flinders University, Dynamic Calibrator 34118, Adelaide, Australia) as previously described. 5 , 9 As per manufacturer requirements to overcome potential frictional losses, the CALRIG and the KICKR were operated for 30 minutes at 100 to 120 rpm and 15 minutes

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Carlo Capelli

against frictional forces times the acceleration of gravity ( g , m/s 2 ). The value of this term depends on the characteristics of the tires and of the terrain, 3 which, for M t  = 85 kg and for C rr  = 0.031 J · m −1  · kg −1 , amounts to 25.8 J/m. 4 The second term is the metabolic energy spent per

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Alyssa C. Adams, Kelly B. Fleming and Patricia M. Tripp

deformity often sublux the affected hip and are at an increased risk for dislocation. With hip dysplasia, greater stress is placed on the acetabular rim and on the articular cartilage. Increased friction at these sites can lead to early onset osteoarthritis. Surgical intervention via Bernese hip PAO is the

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Christos Anagnostopoulos

’s jersey or your next favorite pair of boots. We do not want to hide that. In fact, we want to make that process as friction free as possible with swipe-ups and shoppable content. That always needs to be balanced with noncommercial, more editorially focused content, but if people follow Adidas, there is an

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

, when positioning oneself closely behind an opponent, the effect of drafting could reduce air-frictional losses by 23%. 30 Moreover, skating in the beginning stages of short-track races at a position other than the leading position could provide the opportunity to better oversee your competitors. 13

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Pierre Samozino, Jean Romain Rivière, Jérémy Rossi, Jean-Benoit Morin and Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

practical method to free athletes from body weight during a squat movement is to realize the squat horizontally, supine on a rolling device (eg, long board), and push with the feet onto a wall (Figure  1 ). 5 Even if the inertia remains equal to body mass, the resistive forces are only the rolling friction

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Øyvind Skattebo, Thomas Losnegard and Hans Kristian Stadheim

safety harness connected to an automatic emergency brake. The rolling friction coefficient ( μ  = 0.021) of the roller skis (Swenor, Sarpsborg, Norway) was tested before, during, and after the experiments 21 and was unchanged during the study. Work rate was calculated as the sum of power against gravity

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Anna Lee, Tanvi Bhatt, Xuan Liu, Yiru Wang, Shuaijie Wang and Yi-Chung (Clive) Pai

displacement of the BOS relative to the COM. Previous studies have reported that overground slip training induced by a vinyl floor and a low-friction movable platform can significantly reduce the rate of falls within the first several trials through immediate (ie, <5 min) improvements in COM state stability