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David S. Haydon, Ross A. Pinder, Paul N. Grimshaw and William S.P. Robertson

StrokeAngs (ie, distance for hand to travel) compared with high-point players inhibiting their ability to match the short recovery times of other groups. Minimizing RecTime has performance benefits, as it reduces the time in which the frictional resistance between wheels and court is the main force acting on

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Tzu-Chieh Liao, Joyce H. Keyak and Christopher M. Powers

coefficient of friction of 0.02. 21 Quasi-static loading simulations were performed using a nonlinear finite element solver (Abaqus; Simulia, Providence, RI). Patella cartilage stress was evaluated in terms of hydrostatic pressure and maximum shear stress. 25 , 26 As a scalar parameter, hydrostatic pressure

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Abigail M. Tyson, Stefan M. Duma and Steven Rowson

realistic range for contact sports. 11 , 16 , 53 – 55 The NOCSAE headform was preferred over the Hybrid III due to it being a better geometric representation of a human head with lower skin friction. 45 The Hybrid III neck was custom mounted to the NOCSAE headform to improve head-neck positioning 47 and

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Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin and Antonio Dello Iacono

different designs, inertial mechanisms, manufacturing materials, and friction coefficients. This is the main reason behind the lack of gold standard valid and reliable procedures that objectively determine the magnitude of inertial loads and associated intensities. Future studies are warranted to determine

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Wai-Ting Lo, Kit-Lun Yick, Newman Lau, Lok-Tung Tse, Sun-Pui Ng and Joanne Yip

) 21.1 18.8 Hardness (Shore A) ASTM D 2240 20 32 Coefficient of friction 0.69 0.78 Compression (kPa) ISO 3386-1 1607 13713 Force reduction (%) ASTM D 2632 70.1 54.2 Bending stiffness (N mm) 55.02 22.23 Experimental Protocol The experiment involved two components as shown in Figure  2 ; one in which the

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Tatiane Piucco, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Rogério Soares, Juan M. Murias and Guillaume Y. Millet

skating test is another potential limitation. Skating on a level grade can be technically too difficult and might lead to the test finishing without exerting the highest levels of power due to lack of resistance and small friction. This might be especially true for recreational skaters, hockey players

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Farid Farhani, Hamid Rajabi, Raoof Negaresh, Ajmol Ali, Sadegh Amani Shalamzari and Julien S. Baker

minute. After 2 minutes of active recovery, athletes performed 15 seconds of acceleration at 70 rpm with work resistance set at 0.025 kg per kg body mass. 20 Then, the full load was used with frictional resistance at 0.075 kg per kg body mass for each participant. 21 To calculate the relative power

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Allison J. Nelson, Patrick T. Hall, Katherine R. Saul and Dustin L. Crouch

was that, although the exoskeleton model included direct geometric representations of several physical components (eg, spring, cam wheel), it did not account for other physical properties. For example, the model did not account for the mass of the components other than the concentric wheels, friction

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Pål Haugnes, Per-Øyvind Torvik, Gertjan Ettema, Jan Kocbach and Øyvind Sandbakk

navigation satellite system with integrated barometry and accompanying heart rate monitor, and the V max section was monitored by photocells and video. The snow friction and weather conditions were stable throughout the entire test day, with light wind, light snow, partly cloudy, air temperature of −3°C

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James R. Chagdes, Joshua J. Liddy, Amanda J. Arnold, Laura J. Claxton and Jeffrey M. Haddad

only examined AP sway, the predicted CoP errors apply to ML sway as well. This is because the CoP (and CoB) calculated in the AP direction are only a result of vertical force, the torque applied at the foot, and horizontal frictional forces; thus, no amount of ML motion can change the CoP (or CoB