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Elisa S. Arch, Sarah Colón and James G. Richards

dynamic model of the breast during exercise . Sports Eng . 2010 ; 12 : 189 – 197 . doi:10.1007/s12283-010-0046-z 10.1007/s12283-010-0046-z 7. Scurr J , White J , Hedger W . Breast displacement in three dimensions during the walking and running gait cycles . J Appl Biomech . 2009 ; 25 : 322

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Erik A. Wikstrom, Kyeongtak Song, Kimmery Migel and Chris J. Hass

elucidated during more challenging tasks given that Bigouette et al. 6 detected elevated peak impact forces and a higher loading rate during treadmill running in those with CAI. However, Read et al. 21 noted increased vGRF in those with CAI relative to uninjured controls between 0–10% of the gait cycle (i

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Scott W. Ducharme and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

characteristics and joint coordination among individuals with unilateral patellofemoral pain . Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 18 , 110 – 121 . doi:10.1123/jab.18.2.110 10.1123/jab.18.2.110 Jordan , K. , Challis , J.H. , & Newell , K.M. ( 2007 a). Speed influences on the scaling behavior of gait cycle

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Manuel E. Hernandez, Erin O’Donnell, Gioella Chaparro, Roee Holtzer, Meltem Izzetoglu, Brian M. Sandroff and Robert W. Motl

resources to safely slow down strides and control balance or leg positioning during single support phases of the gait cycle when walking on a virtual beam. Addition of Cognitively Demanding Task to Balance-Demanding Walking Limits PFC Activity Consistent with an increased neural reserve ( Stern, 2009

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Shuaijie Wang, Yiru Wang, Yi-Chung (Clive) Pai, Edward Wang and Tanvi Bhatt

0.05 m·s −1 , which was around 50 milliseconds after the right foot’s heel contact. 15 The proactive phase covers the swing phase during the gait cycle, which contains the early, mid, and terminal swing phases. Hence, the proactive phase was divided, based on the swing phases, into 3 subphases

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Amy Waters, Elissa Phillips, Derek Panchuk and Andrew Dawson

.1%) than the coaches (13.5%) (Figure  1 ). The stance phase of sprinting technique refers to the period in the gait cycle where the foot is in contact with the ground ( Novacheck, 1998 ). The coaches’ comments focused on broader concepts, such as balance and the time in contact with the ground, whereas the

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Hendrik Reimann, Tyler Fettrow and John J. Jeka

freedom than in standing, which makes the problem much more complex. Furthermore, the role any given degree of freedom plays for the system varies greatly during the gait cycle. While standing can be well approximated by a linear system, the walking human body is at best locally linear in some

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Kerry E. Costello, Janie L. Astephen Wilson, William D. Stanish, Nathan Urquhart and Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey

in the joint coordinate system, 32 were calculated from 3D diode positions using a least squares optimization. 33 The 3D net external joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamics, time normalized to the stance phase of the gait cycle, and amplitude normalized to body mass. 34 – 37

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Fabian Mager, Jim Richards, Malika Hennies, Eugen Dötzel, Ambreen Chohan, Alex Mbuli and Felix Capanni

metatarsophalangeal joint angles and moments. Kinematics of the ankle and metatarsophalangeal joint have been examined using multisegment foot models, and it has been reported that, at 50% of the gait cycle the ankle joint is at peak dorsiflexion, with the metatarsophalangeal angle then moving to approximately 27° of

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Seung-uk Ko, Gerald J. Jerome, Eleanor M. Simonsick and Luigi Ferrucci

motion Mean ( SE ) a Mean ( SE ) p value a Gait parameters  Speed (m/s) 1.09 (0.01) 1.15 (0.01) .001  Stride length (m) 1.20 (0.01) 1.21 (0.01) .270  Stance (%gait cycle) 63.10 (0.12) 63.01 (0.10) .577  Cadence (steps/min) 113.42 (0.56) 112.97 (0.47) .563 Range of motion (deg)  Hip 38.36 (0.31) 38.70 (0