The context of voluntary movement during facial assessment has significant effects on the activity of facial muscles. Using automated facial analysis, we found that healthy subjects instructed to blow produced lip movements that were longer in duration and larger in amplitude than when subjects were instructed to pucker. We also determined that lip movement for puckering expressions was more asymmetric than lip movement in blowing. Differences in characteristics of lip movement were noted using facial movement analysis and were associated with the context of the movement. The impact of the instructions given for voluntary movement on the characteristics of facial movement might have important implications for assessing the capabilities and deficits of movement control in individuals with facial movement disorders. If results generalize to the clinical context, assessment of generally focused voluntary facial expressions might inadequately demonstrate the full range of facial movement capability of an individual patient.
Karen L. Schmidt, Jessie M. Van Swearingen and Rachel M. Levenstein
Joseph Baker, Janice Deakin, Sean Horton and G. William Pearce
Demographic studies indicate a remarkable aging trend in North America. An accurate profile of the decline in physical and cognitive capabilities over time is essential to our understanding of the aging process. This study examined the maintenance of skilled performance across the careers of 96 professional golfers. Data were collected on scoring average, driving distance, driving accuracy, greens in regulation, putts per round, and number of competitive rounds played using online data archives. Analyses indicate that performance in this activity can be maintained to a greater extent than in activities relying on biologically constrained abilities. Although the generalizability of these results to “normal” aging populations is not known, they suggest that acquired skills can be maintained to a large extent in the face of advancing age.
David D. Anderson, Ben M. Hillberry, Dorothy Teegarden, William R. Proulx, Connie M. Weaver and Tomoaki Yoshikawa
Bone remodeling as a response to exercise in human subjects is described in the literature, although most studies treat exercise as a qualitative factor contributing to bone remodeling. Quantitative description requires assessment of the mechanical loads on the bones. This work describes a generalized lower extremity model that uses existing musculoskeletal modeling techniques to quantify mechanical variables in the femoral neck during exercise. An endurance exercise program consisting of walking, jogging jumping rope, and weight-training was analyzed. Peak femoral neck cortex stresses and strains were high during jogging and squatting, compared to walking, whereas jumping rope and other weight-training exercises produced peak stresses comparable to or lower than walking. Peak stress and strain rates were significantly higher for walking, jumping rope, and jogging than for weight-training. The model should prove useful for any study investigating a quantitative relationship between exercise and bone remodeling.
David Markland, Mark Emberton and Rachel Tallon
The aims of this study were to assess the factorial and construct validity of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES; McAuley & Coumeya, 1994) among children. Following a pilot study designed to check British children’s comprehension of the instrument, two groups of children completed a modified SEES prior to and after taking part in a game of rounders (n = 110) or a maximal exercise test (n = 121). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit of the hypothesized model to the data after the removal of two problematic items that were identified by examining residuals and modification indices. Multisample analyses supported the generalizability of the factor structure across gender pre- and postexercise and across exercise mode. Analyses of pre- to postexercise changes in subscale scores gave some evidence for construct validity. The findings suggest that the modified SEES may be useful in examining questions concerning exercise and affect among children.
Walter E. Davis, William A. Sparrow and Terry Ward
A fractionation technique was employed to determine the locus of reaction time delay in Down syndrome (DS) and other adult subjects with mental retardation (MH). Twenty-three subjects (8 nondisabled, 8 MH, and 7 DS) responded to a light, sound, and combination light/sound signal. Dependent measures of premotor time, motor time, total reaction time, and movement time were obtained during a 20° elbow extension movement and were analyzed separately. As expected, both MH and DS subjects were slower and more variable in their responses than the subjects without disabilities. In turn, DS subjects were significantly slower but not more variable than the MH subjects. There were no significant differences between the DS and MH subjects on movement times. Evidence for both a specific (premotor) and a generalized (both premotor and motor) locus of delay was found. Some difference in signal effect was also found for the DS subjects.
Phillip Ward, Shannon Smith and Tom Sharpe
An A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to evaluate whether accountability, in the form of public posting, was effective in improving football players’ performance in successfully blocking the forward momentum of the defense and in running routes to a criterion at, or greater than, 90% correct. Five wide receivers on a college football team participated in the study. Data were collected during practice sessions and weekly games. The players’ game performance was not intervened on and served as a measure of both the generality of the intervention and as a product measure of the practice performance. The data show that during public posting the players’ performances met or exceeded the criterion established for practices and that this criterion performance generalized to the game setting. These results support previous findings on tasks and accountability. Moreover, the public posting intervention was easy to implement by the coaches and welcomed by the players.
Douglas A. Haines and Mark E. Raizenne
Models to indirectly estimate minute ventilation (V̇E) from heart rate (HR) monitored during normal activity were developed. VE-to-HR relationships were established from V̇E and HR measured in a graded cycle ergometer test performed by 99 girls, 7-14 years of age. The regression In V̇E = a + (b × HR) was a better predictor of V̇E, when individually determined, than were generalized prediction equations. V̇E, estimated by applying individual VE-to-HR regressions to HR monitored over 10 daytime hours, ranged between 11.5 and 14.5 L·min−1. This is a practical method of estimating V̇E, but further validation of the relationships with HR under various modes of exercise are necessary to improve the prediction in everyday settings.
Michael B. Johnson, William A. Edmonds, Gershon Tenenbaum and Akihito Kamata
A recently introduced probabilistic methodology (Kamata, Tenenbaum, & Hanin, 2002) was implemented in the current study to ascertain the idiosyncratic Individual Affect-related Performance Zones (IAPZs) of four intercollegiate tennis players. The current study advances upon previous empirical works by its use of multiple performance levels, use of athletes’ introspective affective intensity, and recording multiple data points duringcompetition. Results present within- and between-player comparisons, and highlight the dynamic nature of competitive athletic events. A brief discussion regarding the implications of this methodology and the pursuant results for sport psychology consultants is also proffered. Being idiosyncratic in nature, the observations from this study are not intended to generalize across samples, but rather to introduce how knowledge of the systematic and dynamic linkage between an individual’s affect and his or her performance can be uncovered and possibly used with individual athletes to facilitate more consistently optimal performances.
Noam Eyal, Michael Bar-Eli, Gershon Tenenbaum and Joan S. Pie
The aim of this study was to examine whether outcome expectations can be generalized from one defined task to other tasks. A deception paradigm was employed in which outcome expectations were manipulated. High, low, or medium expectations toward performing five tasks, which gradually increased in complexity and shared a common skill, were manipulated. Ninety adult males were randomly assigned to manipulation groups. A within-subjects repeated measures ANOVA indicated that those manipulated by medium expectations showed elevated perceptions of outcome expectations. Their performance, however, was superior only in the two tasks most similar in complexity to the initial task. On the less similar tasks, the differences among the groups were insignificant. A generalization effect can therefore be demonstrated on outcome expectations and performance to a certain degree of task complexity. Implications of the superior performance of participants manipulated to produce medium outcome expectations are discussed.
Christina Evaggelinou, Nikolaos Tsigilis and Areti Papa
This study was designed to examine the underlying structure of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) in Ulrich (1985). The TGMD was administered to 644 children who were randomly divided into two groups (calibration group and validation group). The calibration group (n = 324) included 150 boys and 174 girls, and the validation group included 160 boys and 160 girls, ranging from 3 to 10 years. A two-factor model was postulated and supported. According to the model, seven variables measuring children’s ability for moving into space loaded on one factor (locomotor skills), while five variables measuring children’s ability for controlling objects loaded on the other factor (object control skills). In addition, the proposed model was found to be invariant across the two groups. Good cross-generalizability of the TGMD appears to support its validity. Physical educators working with young children may use it with confidence when assessing and planning physical education programs involving locomotor and object control skills.