This study examined how perceived motivational climate in physical education is related to (a) perceptions of teachers’ differential treatment toward high and low achievers, (b) reported motivation and anxiety of children with high and low perceived competence during play or exercise with high- or low-ability children. One thousand three hundred ninety-three high school students completed measures of the above variables. The perception of teacher’s differential treatment was positively related to the perception of an environment emphasizing social comparison and negatively related to the perception of a climate emphasizing personal progress. Perceived competence had no effect on intrinsic motivation when extremely high learning goals were adopted. When low learning goals were adopted, motivation decreased for children with low perceived ability playing with high achievers and for children with high perceived ability playing with low achievers. A high learning-oriented climate should be created to enhance equality and maximize motivation.
Ron E. McBride
Six physical education specialists—two elementary, two junior high, and two high school (three males and three females)—were studied in an attempt to discern possible sex-role stereotyping in their classes. Data were triangulated from teacher observations, a sex-role inventory, and junior and senior high school student perceptions of teacher treatment in physical education classes. Results revealed that the female teachers used more managerial cues in their classes and called boys by name more frequently than did male teachers. Two male teachers were classified as being gender typed, but results from students of both sexes revealed no perceived differential treatment in class. From this teacher sample, the results suggest that perhaps the gymnasium is not quite the bastion of gender typing as is often assumed. Due to the small sample size, results were not generalized to a larger population and thus additional research is recommended.
John L. Walker, Tinker D. Murray, Charles M. Johnson, Don L. Rainey and William G. Squires Jr.
This study evaluated the aerobic demands of the 20-minute steady-state jogging speeds for 15 high school students. All subjects performed a discontinuous treadmill test that included submaximal speeds, the Fit Youth Today criterion referenced speeds, and finally a run to voluntary fatigue. Stages lasted 5 minutes. Preliminary data indicated that both groups averaged between 87% (the 9 boys) and 93 % (the 6 girls) of their respective peak oxygen consumption at the criterion referenced speeds during treadmill testing. According to the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for healthy adults, these intensities represent the upper threshold for aerobic conditioning, and high exercise intensities can increase the risk of injury. Although the results of this study are preliminary in nature and based on a small sample size, we suggest that the criterion referenced distances (speeds) for the FYT 20-minute steady-state jog may need modification.
Molly Yanity and Aimee C. Edmondson
Coverage of the recruitment of high school athletes has exploded in the last decade as the advent of the Internet turned a once-obscure type of coverage into a multimillion-dollar industry. The demand for information about college football recruits has led to new ethical challenges for Web-based publications. This survey of sport media identifies some of the ethical challenges associated with such coverage and proposes a code of ethics for Web-based media outlets. Media covering high school recruiting can use these guidelines to gain and maintain credibility, to uphold a high level of ethics, and to avoid restrictions or rules mandated by an outside source in a specialized beat where high school students are the primary subjects.
Jennifer L. Fisette
The purpose of this study was to create an educational context in physical education to empower seven high school girls by giving them the opportunity to design, implement, and complete an action research project of their interest. Participants’ stories were told and voices heard through the development of informational products they dispersed among the student body. Specifically, the girls expressed that gender and embarrassment issues were barriers they encountered in physical education. As a result, they wanted to take action by learning how other high school students felt about these issues. This article examines my process as a reflexive researcher and the students’ process as participants and action researchers, as well as how various power hierarchies inherent in the educational structure both empowered and constrained the research.
Jeanette M. Garcia, Alen Agaronov, John R. Sirard, Diane Whaley, David J. Rice and Arthur Weltman
Sedentary behavior (SB) increases throughout adolescence, and is associated with adverse health outcomes.
Examine psychosocial and friend influences on SB and screen time in adolescents using a mixed-methods design.
108 middle and high school students wore accelerometers to measure objective SB, completed screen time and psychosocial questionnaires, and nominated friends to complete activity questionnaires. Focus groups centered around influences on SB behavior. Regression analyses and NVivo software analyzed quantitative and qualitative data.
Screen time was associated with greater screen time enjoyment, lower self-efficacy, and friends’ screen time (r 2 = .21, P < .0001). Friends influenced whether adolescents engaged in screen time behaviors, with active friends encouraging less screen time.
Active friends influenced adolescents to engage in less SB. Interventions should place an emphasis on encouraging less screen time, and providing opportunities for adolescents and their friends to engage in activities that promote physical activity rather than SB.
Laura Azzarito and Melinda A. Solmon
The study of the social construction of the body has become crucial to contemporary academic discourses in education and physical education. Employing feminist poststructuralist theory and a qualitative ethnographic design, this study investigated how high school students identified themselves with images of bodies drawn from fitness and sports magazines, and how their body narratives were linked to their participation in physical education. Students’ body narratives reflected notions of comfortable, bad, and borderland bodies that influenced students’ physical activity choices and engagement in physical education. Girls’ narratives of their physicality were found to be significantly less comfortable than boys’. Critical pedagogy to destabilize gendered dominant discourses of mass media body culture and to develop positive, meaningful, and empowering student physicality is discussed.
Gary D. Kinchin and Mary O’Sullivan
While there have been frequent calls for reform in secondary physical education, little research has focused on the implementation and assessment of curriculum from the perspective of students. Drawing upon the theoretical frame of student resistance, the purpose of this study was to describe how high school students demonstrated support for and resistance to implementation of a 20- day curricular initiative termed a Cultural Studies unit. This approach consists of an integrated practical and theoretical study of sport and physical activity. Data were collected through student focus group interviews, student journals, nonparticipant observations, and informal conversations. Students responded favorably to the principles of Sport Education and the opportunities to critique issues of social justice. Such content was considered appropriate for physical education. Resistance to some aspects of the unit was both overt and covert. Meticulous and careful planning of content and choice of pedagogy to facilitate delivery is crucial to positioning a Cultural Studies unit in a high school program.
Josh Trout and Kim C. Graber
The purpose of this investigation was to examine overweight students’ perceptions of and experiences in physical education. Specifically, the applicability of learned helplessness as a framework to understand their experiences was explored. Participants were seven female and five male high school students whose body mass index was at or higher than the gender- and age-specific 85th percentile based on Centers for Disease Control growth charts. Data collection included formal interviews with students and their parents. The primary findings indicate that students have mixed opinions concerning the benefits to be derived from physical education. Despite recognizing the relationship between lack of physical activity and obesity, many participants avoided participation because they had been traumatized to the extent of exhibiting symptoms consistent with learned helplessness. Participants demonstrated greater concern about visibility than they did about their performance, which suggests they might engage in physical activity if shielded from the view of peers.
Jane M. Shimon and Linda M. Petlichkoff
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of pedometer use and self-regulation strategies on adolescents’ daily physical activity.
Junior high school students (n = 113) enrolled in seventh- and eighth-grade physical education classes (52 girls, 61 boys) volunteered to participate in a 5-week study to assess daily step counts. Ten physical education classes were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (a) self-regulation, (b) open, and (c) control.
A repeated-measures, mixed-model analysis of variance revealed a significant 3 × 4 (Group by Time) interaction effect, F6,290 = 2.64, P < .02. Follow-up analyses indicated participants in the self-regulation group took 2071 to 4141 more steps/d than the control. No other significant differences emerged among groups on step counts.
It appears that having access to and charting daily step counts (ie, self-regulatory strategies) positively influenced young adolescents to attain a higher number of steps/d.