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Scott K. Lynn, Ricardo A. Padilla and Kavin K.W. Tsang


Proper functioning of the intrinsic foot musculature (IFM) is essential in maintaining the integrity of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA). Improper functioning of the IFM leads to excessive pronation of the foot, which has been linked to various pathologies. Therefore, training the IFM to avoid excessive pronation may help prevent some of these pathologies; however, it is not clear how to train these muscles optimally.


To investigate the effects of 2 different types of IFM training on the height of the MLA and static- and dynamic-balance task performance.


Randomized controlled trial, repeated-measures mixed-model design.


University biomechanics laboratory for testing and a home-based training program.


24 healthy, university-age volunteers (3 groups of 8) with no history of major lower limb pathology or balance impairment.


One experimental group performed 4 wk of the short-foot exercise (SFE) and the other performed 4 wk of the towel-curl exercise (TCE). Participants were asked to perform 100 repetitions of their exercise per day.

Main Outcome Measures:

Navicular height during weight bearing, the total range of movement of the center of pressure (COP) in the mediolateral (ML) direction for a static-balance test and a dynamic-balance test.


There were no differences in the navicular height or static-balance tests. For the dynamic-balance test, all groups decreased the ML COP movement on the dominant limb by a small amount (~5 mm); however, the SFE group was able to decrease COP movement much more than the TCE group in the nondominant limb.


The SFE appeared to train the IFM more effectively than the TCE; however, there were differing results between the dominant and nondominant legs. These imbalances need to be taken into consideration by clinicians.

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ESPN: The Making of a Sports Media Empire Craig Greenham 9 2016 9 3 384 385 10.1123/ijsc.2016-0046 Disequilibrium Sports Economics: Competitive Imbalance and Budget Constraints J.C. Kim 9 2016 9 3 386 388 10.1123/ijsc.2016-0051 The ESPN Effect: Exploring the Worldwide Leader in Sports Brian A

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Athletes Julie M. Fritz PhD, PT, ATC 3 1999 4 4 2 2 27 27 31 31 10.1123/att.4.2.27 Spondylolisthesis and Spondylolysis in Athletes David J. Pezzullo MS, PT, ATC, SCS 3 1999 4 4 2 2 36 36 40 40 10.1123/att.4.2.36 Influence of Lower Extremity Biomechanics and Muscle Imbalances on the Lumbar Spine Denise

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EDITORIAL There’s More Than One Way to Skin a CAT Jennifer M. Medina McKeon PhD, ATC, CSCS * Patrick O. McKeon PhD, ATC, CSCS * 24 3 93 94 10.1123/ijatt.2019-0037 ijatt.2019-0037 CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPIC Vestibular Rehabilitation for Dizziness and Imbalance Following Concussion: A Critically

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Evaluation & Testing Clinical Movement Analysis to Identify Muscle Imbalances and Guide Exercise Darin A. Padua PhD, ATC Christopher J. Hirth MS, ATC, PT, PES 7 2007 12 12 4 4 10 10 14 14 10.1123/att.12.4.10 Disability & Special Needs Athletes with Sensory Impairment: Suggestions for Effective

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and imbalance will most likely benefit only from vestibular rehabilitation. a. True b. False 3. Due to a lack of consistency in exercise prescription and administration, it is difficult to make meaningful assertions about the effect of vestibular rehabilitation on resolving dizziness and imbalance. a

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Renate M. Leithäuser

outcomes of a scientist translate successfully into exceptional sporting performance, this brings profile and reputation that can generate more research activity and funding. While this is nice for successful athletes and supporting scientists, it can lead to an imbalance of research output in the various

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Wei-Cheng Chao, Jui-Chi Shih, Kuan-Chung Chen, Ching-Lin Wu, Nai-Yuan Wu and Chien-Sheng Lo

limitations, muscle imbalances, and asymmetries. 5 , 6 Conventionally, it is used to evaluate athletes’ functional movements before the season begins. Previous studies have shown that athletes who recorded lower FMS scores tended to have higher risk of injuries. 7 – 9 In addition to use as a screening tool

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9 2 2 36 36 37 37 10.1123/att.9.2.36 Cata Views Muscle-Imbalance Screening for Treating and Preventing Overuse Syndromes Richard DeMont PhD, CAT(C), ATC Mai-Linh Dovan CAT(C) 3 2004 9 9 2 2 38 38 39 39 10.1123/att.9.2.38 Info Tech Advisor Electronic Manners and Netiquette Gretchen Schlabach

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Josephine Blagrave and Taylor Guy

principles to avoid discrimination and stereotyping. Reflective questions, thinking points, and information related to power imbalances, political climate, and cultural competency are also included. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the different ethical issues that may arise when studying children