-intensity interval training (HIIT) in multiple sports. 4 – 6 Currently, swimming coaches typically prescribe HIIT based on affordable methods (eg, beats below maximal heart rate [HR max ], race pace, personal best (PB) times, holding best average), which do not take into account the between-subjects differences in
Eva Piatrikova, Nicholas J. Willsmer, Ana C. Sousa, Javier T. Gonzalez and Sean Williams
Guillaume P. Ducrocq, Thomas J. Hureau, Olivier Meste and Grégory M. Blain
% ) was performed until exhaustion to ensure that the peak V ˙ O 2 ( V ˙ O 2 peak ) measured during the previous incremental test corresponded to V ˙ O 2 max . 26 During 3 separated experimental visits, participants performed an 11-minute “interval training sessions” (IT), during which participants ran
Jan-Michael Johansen, Sondre Eriksen, Arnstein Sunde, Øystein B. Slettemeås, Jan Helgerud and Øyvind Støren
studies have investigated the effect of training designed specifically to improve %RUN-VO 2 max in DP, although Nilsson et al 15 found a 4% increase in DP-VO 2 peak without any changes in RUN-VO 2 max after 6 wk of aerobic interval training on a DP ergometer. This means that %RUN-VO 2 max should have
Bent R. Rønnestad and Joar Hansen
Descriptive studies of successful endurance athletes show that they perform a high volume of low-intensity training (LIT) in addition to smaller but substantial proportions of both moderate-intensity training (MIT) and high-intensity interval training (HIT). 1 Vladimir Issurin is one of the
Cristiane B.B. Antonelli, Charlini S. Hartz, Sileno da Silva Santos and Marlene A. Moreno
±300 cmH 2 O. MIP measurements were performed at 1, 5, 10, and 15 recovery minutes after completion of the Yo-Yo maximum test. 16 After the end of the evaluations, the athletes were assigned to 12 weeks of systematized interval training, to which involved activities of lay-up skills added to the IMT
Thomas Reeve, Ralph Gordon, Paul B. Laursen, Jason K.W. Lee and Christopher J. Tyler
-duration high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in the heat provides an insufficient thermal impulse for extensive physiological heat adaptation. Perceptual data showed positive adaptations with reduced mean RPE and peak TS at day 5 compared with day 1 of HA. Reduced perceived levels of effort and thermal
Julien Robineau, Mathieu Lacome, Julien Piscione, Xavier Bigard and Nicolas Babault
To assess the impact of 2 high-intensity interval-training (HIT) programs (short interval vs sprint interval training) on muscle strength and aerobic performances in a concurrent training program in amateur rugby sevens players.
Thirty-six amateur rugby sevens players were randomly assigned to strength and short interval training (INT), strength and sprint interval training (SIT), or a strength-only training group (CON) during an 8-wk period. Maximal strength and power tests, aerobic measurements (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] and maximal aerobic velocity), and a specific repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test were conducted before and immediately after the overall training period.
From magnitude-based inference and effect size (ES ± 90% confidence limit) analyses, the current study revealed substantial gains in maximal strength and jump-height performance in all groups. The difference in change of slow concentric torque production was greater in CON than in SIT (0.65 ± 0.72, moderate). VO2peak and, consequently, mean performance in the RSA test were improved in the SIT group only (0.64 ± 0.29, moderate; –0.54 ± 0.35, moderate).
The study did not emphasize interference on strength development after INT but showed a slight impairment of slow concentric torque production gains after SIT. Compared with INT, SIT would appear to be more effective to develop VO2peak and RSA but could induce lower muscle-strength gains, especially at low velocity.
Llion A. Roberts, Kris Beattie, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton
To test the hypothesis that antioxidants can attenuate high-intensity interval training–induced improvements in exercise performance.
Two groups of recreationally active males performed a high-intensity interval running protocol, four times per week for 4 wk. Group 1 (n = 8) consumed 1 g of vitamin C daily throughout the training period, whereas Group 2 (n = 7) consumed a visually identical placebo. Pre- and posttraining, subjects were assessed for VO2max, 10 km time trial, running economy at 12 km/h and distance run on the YoYo intermittent recovery tests level 1 and 2 (YoYoIRT1/2). Subjects also performed a 60 min run before and after training at a running velocity of 65% of pretraining VO2max so as to assess training-induced changes in substrate oxidation rates.
Training improved (P < .0005) VO2max, 10 km time trial, running economy, YoYoIRT1 and YoYoIRT2 in both groups, although there was no difference (P = .31, 0.29, 0.24, 0.76 and 0.59) between groups in the magnitude of training-induced improvements in any of the aforementioned parameters. Similarly, training also decreased (P < .0005) mean carbohydrate and increased mean fat oxidation rates during submaximal exercise in both groups, although no differences (P = .98 and 0.94) existed between training conditions.
Daily oral consumption of 1 g of vitamin C during a 4 wk high-intensity interval training period does not impair training-induced improvements in the exercise performance of recreationally active males.
Rahel Gilgen-Ammann, Wolfgang Taube and Thomas Wyss
To quantify gait asymmetry in well-trained runners with and without previous injuries during interval training sessions incorporating different distances.
Twelve well-trained runners participated in 8 high-intensity interval-training sessions on a synthetic track over a 4-wk period. The training consisted of 10 × 400, 8 × 600, 7 × 800, and 6 × 1000-m running. Using an inertial measurement unit, the ground-contact time (GCT) of every step was recorded. To determine gait asymmetry, the GCTs between the left and right foot were compared.
Overall, gait asymmetry was 3.3% ± 1.4%, and over the course of a training session, the gait asymmetry did not change (F 1,33 = 1.673, P = .205). The gait asymmetry of the athletes with a previous history of injury was significantly greater than that of the athletes without a previous injury. However, this injury-related enlarged asymmetry was detectable only at short (400 m), but not at longer, distances (600–1000 m).
The gait asymmetry of well-trained athletes differed, depending on their history of injury and the running distance. To detect gait asymmetries, high-intensity runs over relatively short distances are recommended.
Jill M. Slade, Hector De Los Santos-Posadas and M. Elaine Cress
This study examined the change in 15K running performance for master runners over 21 years (1978–1998). Official times were collected for 60 male runners from the same running event. Trends in running performance were analyzed with several models (linear, polynomial, and segmented-line). A self-report questionnaire was used to quantify training and to characterize runners. Peak age of running performance was indirectly estimated at 33 years using a second-degree polynomial. The performance trend was also associated with an inflection point at age 41 directly estimated from a nonlinear, segmented, mixed-effects model (95% confidence interval: 38.77–42.44). After age 41, master runners ran nearly 1 min slower each year. Besides age, other parameters that influenced performance over time included type of training (interval training) and body weight. These data might be among the first to describe the trend in running performance for a group of master athletes, most of whom were noncompetitive runners.