Findings from three research paradigms that employed aerobic exercise as an independent variable were used to test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise improves cognitive-neuropsychological functioning. The research paradigms were animal intervention studies, cross-sectional human studies, and human intervention studies. Results from studies of animals, usually rodents, provide consistent evidence that aerobic fitness is associated with improved neurobiological and behavioral functioning. Cross-sectional studies with humans indicate a strong positive association between physical activity level and cognitive-neuropsychological performance. However, results from these studies must be interpreted cautiously, as individuals who elect to exercise or not exercise may differ on other variables that could influence cognitive-neuropsychological performance. To date, human intervention studies have not consistently demonstrated cognitive-neuropsychological improvements following exercise training. To satisfactorily test the exercise/cognition hypothesis with humans, carefully controlled intervention studies that last longer than those previously employed are needed.
Robert E. Dustman, Rita Emmerson and Donald Shearer
Katherine A. Tamminen, Kaleigh Ferdinand Pennock and Courtney Braun
of improvement for more robust youth sport coping intervention studies. First, rather than a single intervention timepoint, we suggest a series of in-person sessions for parents and athletes to improve engagement with the material. Second, to address the aforementioned timing issues, we suggest
R. Pla, Y. Le Meur, A. Aubry, J.F. Toussaint and P. Hellard
of the study including the testing weeks. Training Categorization As Mujika et al, 3 we tested the swimmers for [La] b during a 5- × 200-m incremental test in the period preceding the intervention study. This test consisted of 200-m swims at a progressively increasing pace (using an audible signal
Emma L. J. Eyre, Jason Tallis, Susie Wilson, Lee Wilde, Liam Akhurst, Rildo Wanderleys and Michael J. Duncan
understanding current physical activity levels, and in intervention studies to monitor and track changes without the excessive need for downloading and making complex analysis. Future research should seek to further cross-validate the cut-points generated across adult populations of varying fitness levels and
Kathleen T. Rhyner and Amber Watts
Depressive symptoms are common in older adults, but antidepressant medications may be contraindicated or poorly tolerated in this population. Intervention studies demonstrate that exercise may be an effective alternative. This meta-analysis included 41 randomized controlled trials of aerobic and nonaerobic exercise interventions investigating the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms in adults aged 60 or older. A random effects model demonstrated that exercise was associated with significantly lower depression severity (SMD = 0.57, 95% CI 0.36–0.78). This effect was not significantly different for different ages of participants, types of control groups, or types of exercise interventions. Studies requiring a diagnosis of depression had significantly greater mean effect sizes than studies that did not require a depression diagnosis (Qbet = 6.843, df = 1, p = .009). These findings suggest that exercise is an effective treatment option for older individuals with depressive symptoms.
Bernard Gutin and Scott Owens
The purposes of this article were to (1): review recent studies of relations between physical activity and cardiometabolic biomarkers of youths (2); highlight areas in which additional research is needed; and (3) make recommendations for preventive interventions. Observational studies show that youths who engage in high amounts of moderate-vigorous physical activity display a more favorable cardiometabolic biomarker profile than youths who engage in lesser amounts of moderate-vigorous physical activity. Intervention studies in obese youths show that favorable changes in biomarkers are produced by moderate-vigorous physical activity doses of 150–180 min/week. However, for nonobese youths, intervention studies suggest that such doses are not effective; higher moderate-vigorous physical activity doses of approximately 300 min/week seem necessary. Continuing a physically active lifestyle from childhood into the adult years will enable people to maintain less end-organ damage and lower rates of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
Victor H. Mancini, Deborah A. Wuest and Hans van der Mars
This article provides an overview of the application of systematic supervisory strategies in an undergraduate teacher preparation program. Furthermore, the results are reported for a series of intervention studies. These studies were conducted to determine the impact of using systematic supervisory feedback on teacher behaviors and interaction patterns of preservice physical education teachers. Also included are the findings of the effects of such feedback on the trainees’ attitudes toward teaching, the degree to which they exhibited behaviors indicative of effective teaching, and their awareness of their own teaching behavior.
This review is intended to critically examine the notion that physical training, in addition to its nonspecific effects on fitness, can induce disease-specific benefits in the child with a chronic disease. Conditions included in this analysis are asthma, cerebral palsy, coronary risk, cystic fibrosis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, myopathies, and obesity. Most of the published intervention studies are deficient in design by not including randomly assigned (or matched) controls. Other constraints stem from the need to simultaneously maintain other therapeutic modalities, the progressive nature of some of the diseases, and the small pool of suitable subjects.
Eric T. Poehlman and Christopher Melby
In this brief review we examine the effects of resistance training on energy expenditure. The components of daily energy expenditure are described, and methods of measuring daily energy expenditure are discussed. Cross-sectional and exercise intervention studies are examined with respect to their effects on resting metabolic rate, physical activity energy expenditure, postexercise oxygen consumption, and substrate oxidation in younger and older individuals. Evidence is presented to suggest that although resistance training may elevate resting metabolic rate, il does not substantially enhance daily energy expenditure in free-living individuals. Several studies indicate that intense resistance exercise increases postexercise oxygen consumption and shifts substrate oxidation toward a greater reliance on fat oxidation. Preliminary evidence suggests that although resistance training increases muscular strength and endurance, its effects on energy balance and regulation of body weight appear to be primarily mediated by its effects on body composition (e.g., increasing fat-free mass) rather than by the direct energy costs of the resistance exercise.
Elizabeth G. Eakin, Ben J. Smith and Adrian E. Bauman
This article evaluates the extent to which the literature on primary care-based physical activity interventions informs the translation of research into practice and identifies priorities for future research.
Relevant databases were searched for: (1) descriptive studies of physician barriers to physical activity counseling (n = 8), and (2) reviews of the literature on primary care-based physical activity intervention studies (n = 9). The RE-AIM framework was used to guide the evaluation.
Lack of time, limited patient receptiveness, lack of remuneration, and limited counseling skills are the predominant barriers to physical activity counselling. Issues of internal validity (i.e., effectiveness and implementation) have received much more attention in the literature than have issues of external validity (i.e., reach and adoption).
The research agenda for primary care-based physical activity interventions needs greater attention to the feasibility of adoption by busy primary care staff, generalizability, and dissemination.