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Ghazaleh Azizpour, Matteo Lancini, Giovanni Incerti, Paolo Gaffurini and Giovanni Legnani

applying these experimental data to dynamic equations linking joint torques, environment forces, and joint motions. To evaluate the reliability of the proposed algorithm, the method was applied to a known artificial arm mechanism, and 2 sets of comparisons were drawn. In the first set, the estimated were

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Prasanna Sritharan, Luke G. Perraton, Mario A. Munoz, Peter Pivonka and Adam L. Bryant

distances between virtual markers on the model and measured marker trajectories. 30 Joint torques were calculated using inverse dynamics. Static optimization was used to estimate muscle forces by minimizing the sum of squares of activations subject to constraints imposed by each muscle’s force

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Mary Hellen Morcelli, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Luciano Fernandes Crozara, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Camilla Zamfolini Hallal, Mauro Gonçalves and Marcelo Tavella Navega

gait speed. 7 , 8 Poor lower limb strength has been associated with slow gait speed and the likelihood of falling, making it an important predictor of functional status in older adults. 9 – 12 The association exists because joint torques at the hip, knee, and ankle are summed in a coordinated fashion

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Noah X. Tocci, David R. Howell, Dai Sugimoto, Corey Dawkins, Amy Whited and Donald Bae

forearm to the upper arm. Inertial properties of the throwing arm segments used for this analysis were estimated based on the method previously described. 40 For the purpose of this study, joint torques are reported as internal joint torques and only peak varus torque at the elbow of the throwing arm

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Blair Crewther, Christian Cook, John Fitzgerald, Michal Starczewski, Michal Gorski and Joanna Orysiak

power (W·kg −1 ) were computed from the ground reaction force data. Only data from the best trial were analyzed. The reported error is very low (coefficients of variation < 3.5%) for tests of jumping ability ( 17 , 28 ). Next, maximal joint torque of the flexors and extensors of the elbow, shoulder, hip

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Steven J. Obst, Lee Barber, Ashton Miller and Rod S. Barrett

Estimates of in vivo Achilles tendon (AT) force are needed to measure tendon mechanical properties as a function of the measured net ankle joint torque, and to understand AT function using musculoskeletal modeling approaches. The AT moment arm is required to convert the measured external ankle

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Seung-uk Ko, Gerald J. Jerome, Eleanor M. Simonsick and Luigi Ferrucci

to improve walking in older adults . Current Translational Geriatrics and Experimental Gerontology Reports, 2 ( 4 ), 230 – 238 . doi: 10.1007/s13670-013-0059-0 DeVita , P. , & Hortobagyi , T. ( 2000 ). Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . Journal of Applied

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Komeil Dashti Rostami, Aynollah Naderi and Abbey Thomas

activation or strength of the hip abductors would decrease the stiffness of the hip joint in the frontal plane. Joint torque is the product of muscle force and muscle moment arm. Therefore, decreased peak activation or strength would directly affect the capacity of a muscle to produce joint torque. 48

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Frank E. DiLiberto, Deborah A. Nawoczenski and Jeff Houck

]: walking = 43.2% [7.4%]; standard step = 41.2% [8.5%]; high step =34.9% [7.2%] stance). Sagittal plane ankle and midfoot joint powers were calculated as the product of joint torques and relative segment to segment angular velocities (τ·ω). 12 The ankle and midfoot positive and negative total powers were

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Bernard Liew, Kevin Netto and Susan Morris

single-point mass. 38 In other words, the leg stiffness calculation does not account for the presence of joint torques that accelerate each segment’s inertia. This could explain why as velocity and load magnitude increased, the adjusted R 2 value of the model reduced (Table  1 ). Greater running