The performance of various fundamental movement skills is important for children with movement difficulties (MD) to be successful in physical education and play. The current study aimed to provide a detailed understanding of the aspects impaired in the performance of static and dynamic locomotor and object control skills among children with MD, identified with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, relative to their same-aged peers without MD. Children, 7–10 years, were recruited from three elementary schools. Eighteen children with MD (mean age = 9.14 years, SD = 0.97) and 18 without MD (mean age = 9.12 years, SD = 0.97) participated in the study. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of their movement performance were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and PE Metrics. Children with MD demonstrated significantly poorer performance than children without MD for locomotor skills on the PE Metrics and object control skills on both the TGMD-2 and PE Metrics. The findings of this study suggest that children with MD primarily demonstrate immature movement patterns, inefficient movement strategies, and impaired aspects of movement that impact their performance for dynamic object control skills.
Chantelle Zimmer, Kerri L. Staples and William James Harvey
Marybeth Grant-Beuttler, Jenifer Jennings, Christina McCauley, Robert Dulay, Katlyn Grossnickle, Kerri Kill and John Hay
To develop an electronic version of the Children’s Self-Perceptions of Adequacy in and Predilection for Physical Activity (eCSAPPA), which would allow individual administration to children younger than nine years of age.
Fifty-four, four—nine-year-old children completed the eCSAPPA and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2). Parental measures of physical activity, and body mass index were obtained. Twenty-one participants additionally completed the paper version of the CSAPPA.
All children successfully completed the eCSAPPA with interclass correlation coefficients of .76 for Adequacy and .86 for Total Score. Correlations and linear predictive equations for eCSAPPA revealed the TGMD-2’s Locomotor subtest, age, and parent’s activity rating explained 28–30% of the variability in Total and Adequacy eCSAPPA scores. Predilection and Enjoyment of Physical Education (PE) scores were less stable, with the TGMD-2’s Locomotor subtest and age predicting 17% of the Predilection score and the TGMD-2’s Object Control subtest demonstrating 17% of Enjoyment of PE.
Children ages four-nine years can feasibly complete the electronic version of the CSAPPA and results hint that self-efficacy may be more plastic in younger children. The eCSAPPA is a promising instrument allowing the exploration of young children’s development of adequacy and predilection toward physical activity as well as enjoyment of PE.
Darcy M. Brown, Dan B. Dwyer, Samuel J. Robertson and Paul B. Gastin
The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a global positioning system (GPS) tracking system to estimate energy expenditure (EE) during exercise and field-sport locomotor movements. Twenty-seven participants each completed a 90-min exercise session on an outdoor synthetic futsal pitch. During the exercise session, they wore a 5-Hz GPS unit interpolated to 15 Hz and a portable gas analyzer that acted as the criterion measure of EE. The exercise session was composed of alternating 5-minute exercise bouts of randomized walking, jogging, running, or a field-sport circuit (×3) followed by 10 min of recovery. One-way analysis of variance showed significant (P < .01) and very large underestimations between GPS metabolic power– derived EE and oxygen-consumption (VO2) -derived EE for all field-sport circuits (% difference ≈ –44%). No differences in EE were observed for the jog (7.8%) and run (4.8%), whereas very large overestimations were found for the walk (43.0%). The GPS metabolic power EE over the entire 90-min session was significantly lower (P < .01) than the VO2 EE, resulting in a moderate underestimation overall (–19%). The results of this study suggest that a GPS tracking system using the metabolic power model of EE does not accurately estimate EE in field-sport movements or over an exercise session consisting of mixed locomotor activities interspersed with recovery periods; however, is it able to provide a reasonably accurate estimation of EE during continuous jogging and running.
E. Kipling Webster and Dale A. Ulrich
With recent revisions, the evaluation of the reliability and validity of the Test of Gross Motor Development—3rd edition (TGMD-3) is necessary. The TGMD-3 was administered to 807 children (M age = 6.33 ± 2.09 years; 52.5% male). Reliability assessments found that correlations with age were moderate to large; ball skills had a higher correlation (r = .47) compared with locomotor skills (r = .39). Internal consistency was very high in each age group and remained excellent for all racial/ethnic groups and both sexes. Test-retest reliability had high ICC agreements for the locomotor (ICC = 0.97), ball skills (ICC = 0.95), and total TGMD-3 (ICC = 0.97). For validity measures, the TGMD-3 had above acceptable item difficulty (range = 0.43–0.91) and item discrimination values (range = 0.34–0.67). EFA supported a one-factor structure of gross motor skill competence for the TGMD-3 with 73.82% variance explained. CFA supported the one-factor model (χ2(65) = 327.61, p < .001, CFI = .95, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .10), showing acceptable construct validity for the TGMD-3. Preliminary results show the TGMD-3 exhibits high levels of validity and reliability, providing confidence for the usage and collection of new norms.
Jodie E. Southall, Anthony D. Okely and Julie R. Steele
This study compared actual and perceived physical competence of overweight and nonoverweight children. Participants were 109 nonoverweight and 33 overweight Grade 5 and 6 children (mean age 10.8 years). Overweight status was determined using age- and gender-specific international body-mass-index cut-off values. Actual competence was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd ed., and perceived competence was assessed using an expanded version of the Athletic Competence subscale of the Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). Overweight children had significantly lower actual and perceived physical competence. When actual competence was partitioned into locomotor and object-control skills, however, differences only existed for locomotor skills. These findings indicate that low actual and perceived physical competence might be important contributing factors in maintaining childhood obesity. Interventions to improve actual and perceived physical competence in overweight children should provide opportunities to learn and master fundamental movement skills in an environment where parents, teachers, and coaches provide positive and specific feedback, encouragement, and modeling.
Walter Herzog, Timothy Koh, Evelyne Hasler and Tim Leonard
We hypothesize that the neuromuscular system is designed to function effectively in accomplishing everyday movement tasks. Since everyday movement tasks may vary substantially in terms of speed and resistance, we speculate that agonistic muscles contribute differently to varying movement tasks such that the mechanical, structural, and physiological properties of the system are optimized at all times. We further hypothesize that a mechanical perturbation to the musculoskeletal system, such as the loss of an important joint ligament or the change of a muscle’s line of action, causes an adaptation of the system aimed at reestablishing effective function. Here. we demonstrate how the specificity of the cat ankle extensors is used to accommodate different locomotor tasks. We then illustrate how the loss of an important ligament in the cat knee leads to neuromuscular adaptation. Finally, we discuss the adaptability of skeletal muscle following an intervention that changes a muscle’s line of action, moment arm, and excursion.
Ellen M. Kowalski and Claudine Sherrill
This study examined the effects of model type and verbal rehearsal strategy in relation to motor sequencing of boys with learning disabilities (LD). Eighty boys, ages 7 and 8 years, were exposed to four experimental conditions in a 2 × 2 (Model × Verbal Rehearsal Strategy) design. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) visual-silent model/verbal rehearsal, (b) visual-verbal model/verbal rehearsal, (c) visual-silent model/ no verbal rehearsal, and (d) visual-verbal model/ no verbal rehearsal. The four groups were statistically equal on measures of age, IQ, behavior, learner modality preference, and motor proficiency. Data collected for experimental analysis were generated by the Motor Sequencing Test which measured the ability to model seven locomotor tasks in the correct order. Results revealed that the boys with LD performed significantly better on the motor sequencing test when trained in verbal rehearsal strategy. However, results indicated no significant difference in motor sequencing under visual-silent and visual-verbal model conditions.
William P. Berg and Brian A. Lapp
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a practical resistance training program for the lower extremities on mobility in independent, community-dwelling older adults. Twenty-two volunteers with a mean age of 72.9 years underwent two identical pretests 1 month apart. Lower extremity strength, locomotor stability, preferred gait velocity, and step lime in obstacle clearance were assessed. Participants then engaged in an 8-week resistance training program for the lower extremities using adjustable ankle weights. Following a posttest, a repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine whether changes in strength and mobility when the treatment was interjected differed from when it was not. Results indicated that the training had a limited effect on strength and no effect on mobility. The feasibility of practical resistance training interventions to counteract muscle weakness and associated immobility in independent older adults is discussed.
Jin H. Yan and John H. Downing
Tai Chi, an ancieni form of Chinese fitness exercise, affords its participants a variety of physical and psychological benefits. Research has suggested that individuals engaging in Tai Chi exercises improve cardiovascular fitness and motor control while reducing stress, anxiety and depression. Tai Chi is particularly suitable for seniors, who are often at risk for a variety of problems associated with aging (e.g.. arthritis, neurological dysfunction, and general decline of balance, coordination, and locomotor function). Because of its self-paced. nonstressful, and noncompetitive nature, and its ability to afford economy of lime, space, and equipment, Tai Chi presents an effective, functional alternative exercise form for the senior adult population. This article presents the background of Tai Chi practice and introduces several key elements and suggestions for teaching Tai Chi to senior participants. Finally, some selected resources for Tai Chi practice are listed.
Joonkoo Yun and Deborah R. Shapiro
This study examined the psychometric properties of Ulrich’s (1988) Actual Physical Competence Scale for children with mental retardation. A total of 139 children with MR, 7 to 13 years of age participated. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a multidimensional model of skill assessment captures the motor performance of those with MR more accurately than a unidimensional model. Indices of goodness of fit for the multidimensional model were GFI = .91, RMSEA = .09, (χ2/df) = 2.15, and CFI = .93. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency for the total test battery was ICC = .91 and α = .62, respectively. When evaluating movement skills of children with mental retardation, a multidimensional model incorporating both locomotor and object control skills is recommended.