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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

, M. , Vlahovich , N. , Hughes , D. , Appaneal , R. , Burke , L.M. , Lundy , B. , . . . Waddington , G. ( 2018 ). Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

correct low energy availability, poor iron status, or other nutrient deficiencies as these may alter performance of some protocols and/or the response to supplements. Note that vegetarians may respond differently to supplemental ingredients that are low in their diets (e.g., creatine, carnitine, and b

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Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes and Guilherme G. Artioli

detrimental effects on growth and maturation due to sustained periods of low energy availability ( Loucks et al., 2011 ). Furthermore, RWL is associated with abnormal eating behaviors ( Oppliger et al., 2003 ), and weight-category athletes display a higher prevalence of eating disorders ( Sundgot

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

of daily CHO targets. • Glycogen resynthesis rates are reduced in the presence of low energy availability ( Tarnopolsky et al., 2001 ); some athletes may have to periodize higher energy intakes around scenarios where optimal refueling is desired, although coingestion of protein intake may increase

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Holly Thorpe, Julie Brice and Anna Rolleston

Zealand) throughout and do not italicize Māori words. 2. RED-S is a condition that can occur in athletic women resulting in symptoms such as bone density loss, amenorrhea (chronic loss of menstruation), cardiovascular health problems, and a host of other issues as a result of low energy availability

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

,500 mg/day and 1,500 to 2,000 IU vitamin D are recommended to optimize bone health in athletes with low energy availability or menstrual dysfunction ( Thomas et al., 2016 ). Abbreviations: RDA = recommended dietary allowance; UL = upper limit; UVB = ultraviolet B. * See Larson-Meyer et al. ( 2018 ) for