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Joel D. Reece, Vaughn Barry, Dana K. Fuller and Jennifer Caputo

Background:

This study determined the validity and sensitivity of the SenseWear armband (SWA) during sedentary and light office duties compared with indirect calorimetry (IC).

Methods:

Participants (N = 22), 30 to 64 years of age, randomly performed 6 conditions for 5 minutes each (ie, supine, sitting no movement, standing no movement, sitting office work, standing office work, walking at 1.0 mph). Steady state for each activity (ie, average for minutes 4 and 5) was analyzed.

Results:

Energy expenditure (EE) for the SWA (1.58 kcal/min) and the IC (1.64 kcal/min) were significantly correlated, r(20) = 0.90, P < .001 and ICC = 0.90, 95% CI (0.699, 0.966). Correlation results for each condition varied in strength, r(20) = 0.53 to 0.83 and ICC = 0.49 to 0.81, but were all significant (P < .05). A significant interaction between measurement method and condition existed (P < .001). The SWA under predicted EE during standing with no movement, sitting office work, and standing office work.

Conclusion:

The SWA and IC EE rates were strongly correlated during sedentary and light activity office behaviors. However, the SWA may under predict EE during office work (standing or sitting) and when standing motionless, making it slightly less sensitive than IC.

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Thomas W. Kaminski and Geoff C. Dover

Objective:

To determine the reliability of inversion and eversion concentric isokinetic-strength measurements from the Biodex System 3 isokinetic dynamometer.

Setting:

University biomechanics research laboratory.

Subjects:

Thirty-five volunteers free from any lower leg and ankle injuries within the preceding year.

Measurements:

Peak (PT) and average (AT) isokinetic torque at 30°/s and 120°/s for subtalar-joint inversion and eversion.

Results:

PT intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) ranged from .54 to .92. AT ICC2,1 ranged from .55 to .91. These ICCs were good to excellent for both PT and AT at each speed and motion tested, except for fair ICCs produced from right-foot-eversion measurements at 30°/s.

Conclusions:

Inversion and eversion subtalar-joint strength measurements from the Biodex System 3 isokinetic dynamometer are reliable.

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Ann Forsyth, Kathryn H. Schmitz, Michael Oakes, Jason Zimmerman and Joel Koepp

Background:

Interdisciplinary research regarding how the built environment influences physical activity has recently increased. Many research projects conducted jointly by public health and environmental design professionals are using geographic information systems (GIS) to objectively measure the built environment. Numerous methodological issues remain, however, and environmental measurements have not been well documented with accepted, common definitions of valid, reliable variables.

Methods:

This paper proposes how to create and document standardized definitions for measures of environmental variables using GIS with the ultimate goal of developing reliable, valid measures. Inherent problems with software and data that hamper environmental measurement can be offset by protocols combining clear conceptual bases with detailed measurement instructions.

Results:

Examples demonstrate how protocols can more clearly translate concepts into specific measurement.

Conclusions:

This paper provides a model for developing protocols to allow high quality comparative research on relationships between the environment and physical activity and other outcomes of public health interest.

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Minsoo Kang, David R. Bassett, Tiago V. Barreira, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Barbara E. Ainsworth

Background:

The seasonal and monthly variability of pedometer-determined physical activity and its effects on accurate measurement have not been examined. The purpose of the study was to reduce measurement error in step-count data by controlling a) the length of the measurement period and b) the season or month of the year in which sampling was conducted.

Methods:

Twenty-three middle-aged adults were instructed to wear a Yamax SW-200 pedometer over 365 consecutive days. The step-count measurement periods of various lengths (eg, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 days, etc.) were randomly selected 10 times for each season and month. To determine accurate estimates of yearly step-count measurement, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and bias were calculated. The year-round average was considered as a criterion measure. A smaller MAPE and bias represent a better estimate.

Results:

Differences in MAPE and bias among seasons were trivial; however, they varied among different months. The months in which seasonal changes occur presented the highest MAPE and bias.

Conclusions:

Targeting the data collection during certain months (eg, May) may reduce pedometer measurement error and provide more accurate estimates of year-round averages.

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James R. Cook, Nancy A. Baker, Rakié Cham, Erin Hale and Mark S. Redfern

A marker-based kinematic hand model to quantify finger postures was developed and compared to manual goniometric measurements. The model was implemented with data collected from static postures of five subjects. The metacarpal phalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints were positioned in flexion of approximately 30, 60, and 90 degrees for 5 subjects. Wrist flexion/extension and ulnar/radial deviations were also examined. The model-based angles for the MCP and PIP joints were not statistically equivalent to the goniometric measurements, with differences of −1.8 degrees and +3.5 degrees, respectively. Differences between the two measurement methods for the MCP and PIP were found to be a function of the posture (i.e., 150, 120, or 90 degree blocks) used. Wrist measurements differed by −4.0 degrees for ulnar/radial deviation and +5.2 degrees for flexion/extension. Much of the difference between the model and goniometric measurements is believed due to inaccuracies in the goniometric measurements. The proposed model is useful for future investigations of finger-intensive activities by supplying accurate and unbiased measures of joint angles.

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Lisa M. Barnett, Dean A. Dudley, Richard D. Telford, David R. Lubans, Anna S. Bryant, William M. Roberts, Philip J. Morgan, Natasha K. Schranz, Juanita R. Weissensteiner, Stewart A. Vella, Jo Salmon, Jenny Ziviani, Anthony D. Okely, Nalda Wainwright, John R. Evans and Richard J. Keegan

et al., 2018 ). A recent review by Edwards et al. (2017) recommended that researchers declare their philosophical approach and their definition of physical literacy before adopting any measurement approach. The purpose of this study is to provide physical educators a guide to assessing physical

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Pak-Kwong Chung and Ka-Man Leung

) thus shortened the PACES to eight items in accordance with content analyses from experts in exercise psychology and measurement. These eight items reflect a generalized state of enjoying an activity and the experience itself. The shortened version of the PACES has been used with college students

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Donald L. Greer and Michael G. Lacy

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and comment upon recent developments in the measurement and conceptualization of attitudes toward play, or “game orientation.” Recent scholarly work has become critical of the traditional measurement instrument, the Webb Scale, focusing primarily on the issues of situational ambiguity and unidimensional artificiality. These critiques are analyzed in comparison with the conceptual and measurement approach offered by an alternative instrument, the Game Orientation Scale. It is concluded that the case in favor of the GOS and its Likert format is not as strong as it first appears. Until further research is conducted, the two competing approaches should be treated as of comparable methodological quality. Substantive and methodological recommendations for future research are offered.

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Eric Maylia, John A. Fairclough, Leonard D.M. Nokes and Michael D. Jones

The purpose of this study was to assess whether measurements of thigh bulk taken with a tape measure would give an indication of muscle power. Eleven male patients, all undergoing unilateral menisectomies, performed exercises of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles during concentric loading at 60°/s. The patients were tested three times over a 12-week period: one day before the operation and 2 and 12 weeks after the operation. Thigh girth was recorded, using a conventional plastic tape measure, 10 cm from the top of the patella in each of the three test sessions. The results of this study demonstrated that muscle power cannot be predicted from thigh girth measurements.

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Colleen K. Kilanowski, Angela R. Consalvi and Leonard H. Epstein

Activity measurement using a uniaxial electronic pedometer was compared to a triaxial accelerometer and behavioral observation measurements for ten 7−12-year-old children studied during high intensity recreational and low intensity classroom periods. Correlations between all measures were significant for recreational and classroom periods combined, and recreational periods alone (r’s > .90, p < .001). Correlations between the pedometer and accelerometer were significantly lower during classroom versus recreational activities (0.98 vs. 0.50, p < .05). This may be due in part to the uniaxial pedometer being sensitive only to vertical and not back and forward or side to side movement.