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Susanne James-Burdumy, Nicholas Beyler, Kelley Borradaile, Martha Bleeker, Alyssa Maccarone and Jane Fortson

Background:

The Playworks program places coaches in low-income urban schools to engage students in physical activity during recess. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of Playworks on students’ physical activity separately for Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic white students.

Methods:

Twenty-seven schools from 6 cities were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Accelerometers were used to measure the intensity of students’ physical activity, the number of steps taken, and the percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during recess. The impact of Playworks was estimated by comparing average physical activity outcomes in treatment and control groups.

Results:

Compared with non-Hispanic black students in control schools, non-Hispanic black students in Playworks schools recorded 338 more intensity counts per minute, 4.9 more steps per minute, and 6.3 percentage points more time in MVPA during recess. Playworks also had an impact on the number of steps per minute during recess for Hispanic students but no significant impact on the physical activity of non-Hispanic white students.

Conclusions:

The impact of Playworks was larger among minority students than among non-Hispanic white students. One possible explanation is that minority students in non-Playworks schools typically engaged in less physical activity, suggesting that there is more room for improvement.

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Agnes Elling, Paul De Knop and Annelies Knoppers

The diversity of sport participants in the Netherlands is beginning to reflect the diversity within the general population. Sport as a whole is becoming more accessible, and participation in sport of different social groups takes place within both mainstream and “separate” sports clubs and in differently organized sports groups. In our paper we critically analyze the broader social integrative functions ascribed to sport by policy makers. We attempt to show that the ongoing democratization of sport participation is not always positively correlated, let alone causally related, to a broader social integrated society. We argue that social integration in itself is a multidimensional process and distinguish three dimensions of integration (structural, social-cultural, and social-affective), which can all occur in and through the practice of sport. Furthermore we argue that the integrative meanings of sport depend on which social groups and which of the dimensions of integration are examined. The complementary and contradictory aspects of the dimensions of social integration with regard to four different social minority groups (ethnic minorities, the elderly, the physically challenged, gays and lesbians) are examined.

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Peter J. Ellery and Michael J. Stewart

A survey of the 13 master’s level and five doctoral level adapted physical education programs that received federal funding in the United States in 1998 was conducted to develop a profile describing their attributes. The response rate was 100% (N = 18). Results indicated that these programs, in general, had received funding for more than 15 years, offered coursework from an average of three different academic disciplines, had a high graduate employment rate within 12 months of graduation, and had about one third of the graduates representing a recognized minority group. Master’s level teacher preparation programs were concentrated in the eastern region of the U.S., had graduates with predominantly in-state home addresses, and had graduated predominantly females. Doctoral level leadership programs were geographically distributed across the U.S., had graduates with predominantly out-of-state home addresses, and had equal graduate representation from both genders.

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Anita L. Stewart, Melanie Grossman, Nathalie Bera, Dawn E. Gillis, Nina Sperber, Martha Castrillo, Leslie Pruitt, Barbara McLellan, Martha Milk, Kate Clayton and Diana Cassady

Diffusing research-based physical activity programs in underserved communities could improve the health of ethnically diverse populations. We utilized a multilevel, community-based approach to determine attitudes, resources, needs, and barriers to physical activity and the potential diffusion of a physical activity promotion program to reach minority and lower-income older adults. Formative research using focus groups and individual interviews elicited feedback from multiple community sectors: community members, task force and coalition members, administrators, service implementers, health care providers, and physical activity instructors. Using qualitative data analysis, 47 transcripts (N = 197) were analyzed. Most sectors identified needs for culturally diverse resources, promotion of existing resources, demonstration of future cost savings, and culturally tailored, proactive outreach. The program was viewed favorably, especially if integrated into existing resources. Linking sectors to connect resources and expertise was considered essential. Complexities of such large-scale collaborations were identified. These results may guide communities interested in diffusing health promotion interventions.

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Moshe Semyonov and Mira Farbstein

This research explores the extent to which aggregate violence among players and spectators of soccer teams is affected by the urban ecology and the sports ecology in which the teams operate. Sports violence is viewed here as characteristic of the social system. The analysis focuses on 297 soccer teams in Israel, and demonstrates that violence in sports is systematically related to both the team’s urban ecology and sports ecology. First, teams representing communities of subordinate ethnic minorities are more violent than others. Second, teams competing in higher level (professional) divisions and teams at either the bottom or top of their division (high levels of competition) are more violent. Third, teams characterized by violent players are more likely to have violent spectators. Finally, the causal relation between player and spectator violence is asymmetric: players affect spectators’ violence but not vice versa. These findings are discussed and interpreted in light of sociological theory.

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Meg G. Hancock and T. Christopher Greenwell

Higher education administrators have called on faculty to strategize ways in which to fill classroom seats, as well as recruit and retain diverse students. Understanding current student populations should be of increasing importance to sport management faculty as new programs are established at colleges and universities each year. A sample of 330 sport management students from introductory sport management courses at six different schools was surveyed to identify factors influencing their selection of a sport management major. Results indicate students select the sport management major because they have an interest in sport and working in the sport industry. Program quality and program convenience were also important selection factors. Women had lower salary perceptions and minority students had lower perceptions across most selection factors. Understanding these factors can help programs tailor their marketing and recruiting efforts in an effort to develop a more diverse classroom and workforce.

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Katherine M. Jamieson, Justine J. Reel and Diane L. Gill

Differential treatment by race has been documented in sport, including the opportunity to occupy specific positions. Few researchers have examined the theoretical fit of stacking in women’s sport contexts. Moreover, the three published studies of stacking in women’s athletics were examinations of positional segregation for white and African American women only. Binary conceptions of race are no longer sufficient to explain the complexity of power relations that are visible through phenomena such as stacking. This study focused on the stacking of four major racial groups in NCAA Division I softball. Based upon the results, we suggest that stacking of racial-ethnic minority women may occur in patterns different from those identified in previous stacking studies.

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Claudine Sherrill

The underrepresentation of women in the Paralympics movement warrants attention as the world prepares for Atlanta 1996, when Paralympics (conducted after the Summer Olympics) will attract approximately 3,500 athletes with physical disability or visual impairment from 102 countries. Barriers that confront women with disability, the Paralympic movement, and adapted physical activity as a profession and scholarly discipline that stresses advocacy and attitude theories are presented. Two theories (reasoned action and contact) that have been tested in various contexts are woven together as an approach particularly applicable to women in sport and feminists who care about equal access to opportunity for all women. Women with disability are a social minority that is both ignored and oppressed. Sport and feminist theory and action should include disability along with gender, race/ethnicity, class, and age as concerns and issues.

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Thomas L. McKenzie, Barbara Baquero, Noe C. Crespo, Elva M. Arredondo, Nadia R. Campbell and John P. Elder

Background:

Understanding home environments might shed light on factors contributing to reduced physical activity (PA) in children, particularly minorities. Few studies have used microlevel observations to simultaneously assess children’s PA and associated conditions in homes.

Methods:

Trained observers assessed PA and associated physical and social environmental variables in the homes of 139 Mexican American children (69 boys, 70 girls; mean age = 6 years) after school.

Results:

Children spent most time indoors (77%) and being sedentary (74%). Reduced PA was associated with viewing media, being indoors, and parents being present. Increased PA was associated with prompts for PA and other children being present. PA prompts differed by child gender and location and prompter age status.

Conclusions:

Children are frequently sedentary at home. Microlevel observations showed PA is associated with potentially modifiable social and physical factors, including spending time outdoors. Studies to determine whether interventions on these correlates can improve children’s PA are needed.

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Edward M. Kian

In 2013–14, Jason Collins and Michael Sam became the first 2 athletes from the 4 most popular professional leagues in the United States to publicly come out as gay during their playing careers. U.S. men’s pro team sports have historically been arenas where hegemonic masculinity flourishes and open homosexuality is nearly nonexistent. However, these athletes came out during a period when sexual minorities had won numerous civil rights and were gaining acceptance by a majority of Americans, particularly those who self-identify as politically liberal. A textual analysis examined framing of Collins’s and Sam’s coming out in articles published on the liberal political Web site MSNBC.com. Focus was placed on how these athletes, homosexuality, and masculinity were framed in the corresponding message-board comments posted in response to these articles. Five primary themes emerged from the data, showing that acceptable forms of masculinities and homosexuality in sport remain contested terrains, even on liberal message boards.