The Sport Education (SE) curricular model incorporated within university physical education Basic Instruction Program (BIP) may increase group cohesion. This study’s purpose was to identify student perceptions of a BIP course taught within SE, and investigate group cohesion in differing activity content. Participants included 430 students enrolled in 25 BIP classes delivered in SE. A mixed method design included multiple data collection: critical incident, interview, and Physical Activity Group Environmental Questionnaire (PAGEQ). Lifetime skill and competitive sport class participants reflected more group cohesion than exercise class participants. Exercise class participants reported lower task cohesion than other groups, p < .05. Sport participants reported higher social cohesion than lifetime skill participants, whose responses were higher than exercise participants, ps<.05. Findings from critical incident and interview data provided further support for the PAGEQ results. We suggest that exercise classes may not spontaneously lend themselves to cohesion; thus, teachers need to be more creative in designing SE for exercise classes to increase cohesion.
Jayne M. Jenkins and Brandon L. Alderman
Tina Lankford, Jana Wallace, David Brown, Jesus Soares, Jacqueline N. Epping and Fred Fridinger
Mass media campaigns are a necessary tool for public health practitioners to reach large populations and promote healthy behaviors. Most health scholars have concluded that mass media can significantly influence the health behaviors of populations; however the effects of such campaigns are typically modest and may require significant resources. A recent Community Preventive Services Task Force review on stand-alone mass media campaigns concluded there was insufficient evidence to determine their effectiveness in increasing physical activity, partly due to mixed methods and modest and inconsistent effects on levels of physical activity.
A secondary analysis was performed on the campaigns evaluated in the Task Force review to determine use of campaign-building principles, channels, and levels of awareness and their impact on campaign outcomes. Each study was analyzed by 2 reviewers for inclusion of campaign building principles.
Campaigns that included 5 or more campaign principles were more likely to be successful in achieving physical activity outcomes.
Campaign success is more likely if the campaign building principles (formative research, audience segmentation, message design, channel placement, process evaluation, and theory-based) are used as part of campaign design and planning.
The present study addressed the critical question of whether or not sport specialization is necessary for future collegiate participation. Male and female collegiate student-athletes were studied using a mixed method approach (N = 469). Athletes were studied using the Youth Sport Participation Questionnaire. The data obtained from the quantitative items and open-ended survey items were analyzed, triangulated, and summarized. On average, athletes did not specialize in sport until high school (M = 15.47 ± 3.49 years). Comparisons were made between participants using factorial ANOVAs based on gender, sport type and NCAA Division. Two significant first order interactions were noted between: (1) gender and sport type and (2) NCAA Division and sport type (p < .05). Specifically, males and females from individual sports specialized earlier than their counterparts from team sports. The individual sport participants from both Divisions I and III specialized sooner than team sport participants from both divisions. Three main effects also existed for gender, NCAA Division and sport type (p < .05). The perceptions and experiences of student-athletes based were evidence that specializing in sport may not be necessary, despite the increased sense of competition in youth sports. Practical implications will be provided for coaches and youth sport professionals.
Javier Molina-García and Ana Queralt
This paper analyzes changes in the frequency of cycling to school and helmet wearing after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law, and attempts to identify factors associated with the acceptance of helmet use.
A mixed-method study was designed with a 7-month follow-up period (April 2014 to November 2014). The initial sample included 262 students (aged 12 to 16 years) from Valencia, Spain. The data were collected by questionnaire and 2 focus-group interviews were conducted.
No significant changes in cyclingto-school behavior were found during the study period. Cycle helmet use improved, especially among boys, those who used their own bike, and among adolescents who lived within 2 km of school (P < .05 in all cases). The most common reasons given for not using a helmet were social factors. Peer-group pressure had a negative influence on helmet use among adolescents. Participants also indicated that helmet use is inconvenient, in particular among students who used the public bicycle-sharing program.
The implementation of the helmet-use law did not have a negative impact on the frequency of cycling to school. Our findings provide an empirical basis for designing educational interventions and programs to increase helmet use among adolescents.
Larissa Galatti, Otavio Baggiotto Bettega, Vinícius Zeilmann Brasil, Antonio Evanhoé Pereira de Souza Sobrinho, Rachael Bertram, Alexandre Vinicius Bobato Tozetto, Heitor Andrade Rodrigues, Carine Collet, Juarez Nascimento and Michel Milistetd
Sport coaches in Brazil have been recognized as professionals since the implementation of law 9696 in 1998. However, little is known about the impact of this law on the production of coaching science in this country. In an attempt to situate the sports coaching research produced in Brazil since then, the aim of the current study was to show an overview of Brazilian publications from 2000 to 2015. Eight journals were selected and a review was performed in 425 issues of the journals from 2000 to 2015. As a result, 82 published articles were analyzed. On average, five articles were published each year, with 81.7% of the articles published from 2009 to 2015. The findings illustrate that 37.7% of the articles were focused on coaches’ thinking and 29.5% on coaches’ behaviors, 48.7% used qualitative methods, while 40.3% used quantitative methods and 20.9% used mixed methods. Only two articles attempted to explore the impact of the 1998 legislation on the development of sport coaches in Brazil. In general, research on sport coaching in Brazil seems to be emerging on an international level, as there has been an increase in publications over the past seven years, especially in the lead-up to the Rio2016 Summer Olympic Games.
Amanda J. Visek, Sara M. Achrati, Heather M. Mannix, Karen McDonnell, Brandonn S. Harris and Loretta DiPietro
Children cite “fun” as the primary reason for participation in organized sport and its absence as the number-one reason for youth sport attrition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework of fun using a novel mixed-method assessment of participants in sport (FUN MAPS) via concept mapping.
Youth soccer players (n = 142), coaches (n = 37), and parents (n = 57) were stratified by age, sex, and competition level and contributed their ideas through (a) qualitative brainstorming, identifying all of the things that make playing sports fun for players; (b) sorting of ideas; and (c) rating each idea on its importance, frequency, and feasibility.
The FUN MAPS identify the 4 fundamental tenets of fun in youth sport within 11 fun-dimensions composed of 81 specific fun-determinants, while also establishing the youth sport ethos.
The FUN MAPS provide pictorial evidence-based blueprints for the fun integration theory (FIT), which is a multitheoretical, multidimensional, and stakeholder derived framework that can be used to maximize fun for children and adolescents to promote and sustain an active and healthy lifestyle through sport.
Whitney B. Curry, Symeon Dagkas and Marcia Wilson
The Newman’s Every Child a Sports Person (NECaSP) intervention aspires to increase sport and physical activity (PA) participation among young people in the United Kingdom. The aims of this article are to report on a summative process evaluation of the NECaSP and make recommendations for future interventions.
Seventeen schools provided data from students aged 11 to 13 years (n = 1226), parents (n = 192), and teachers (n = 14) via direct observation and questionnaires. Means, SDs, and percentages were calculated for sociodemographic data. Qualitative data were analyzed via directed content analysis and main themes identified.
Findings indicate further administrative, educational, and financial support will help facilitate the success of the program in improving PA outcomes for young people and of other similar intervention programs globally. Data highlighted the need to engage parents to increase the likelihood of intervention success.
One main strength of this study is the mixed-methods nature of the process evaluation. It is recommended that future school-based interventions that bridge sports clubs and formal curriculum provision should consider a broader approach to the delivery of programs throughout the academic year, school week, and school day. Finally, changes in the school curriculum can be successful once all parties are involved (community, school, families).
Stephen Macdonald and Justine Allen
The purpose of this study was to examine the coach-created talent development motivational climate in Canoe Slalom in the United Kingdom using achievement goal theory, self-determination theory and transformational leadership. The participants were six (five male, one female) full-time Canoe Slalom talent development coaches and 24 athletes (13 male, 11 female). A multidimensional, mixed methods approach examined participants’ perceptions of the motivational climate, transformational leadership behaviours, coaching practices, and coaching philosophies. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and systematic observation. A summary of the coaching climate, practices, and philosophy was developed for each coach based on the perspectives of the athletes, coach, and observer. These were then compared and commonalities and differences amongst the coach-created climates were identified. The coaches created a motivationally adaptive (structured, relatedness supportive, individually-focused, task-involved) talent development motivational climate. However, the coaches varied in the extent to which the climate was autonomy supportive and intellectually stimulating. Analysis of the coaching climates using a learning continuums framework revealed two distinct forms of climate: behaviourist/structure and humanistic/agency. The implications for talent development and key stakeholders are discussed.
Nima Dehghansai, Srdjan Lemez, Nick Wattie and Joseph Baker
Compared with mainstream sport athletes, relatively little is known regarding the factors affecting the development of athletes with a disability. Sport-specific training programs are essential to athletes’ successful performance; to create appropriate programs and strategies, a clear understanding of the nuances of development of athletes with a disability is important. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize existing research on development in athletes with a disability and examine the key determinants of successful development and sporting performance. After a search of the Web of Science and SPORTDiscus databases, 21 articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria, which were assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and categorized into 3 groups: training and practice, shortterm interventions, and long-term changes due to training. Among the studies, there was a disproportionate focus on immediate interventions and training programs and less on long-term development. The review reflected a lack of research on sportspecific development of athletes with a disability, which raises concerns regarding the effectiveness and appropriateness of current training practices.
Robert Eley, Robert Bush and Wendy Brown
Interventions addressing chronic disease through physical activity are hampered by the low evidence base from rural areas. The purpose of the study was to provide information which may contribute to the development of future policy and strategy applicable to rural Queensland.
Six diverse rural shires were chosen. A mixed-method design included more than 100 interviews with community representatives; surveys to 3000 community members; audits of facilities, amenities, and other relevant resources in each shire; and detailed observation during repeated site visits.
Half the respondents failed to meet Australian physical activity guidelines and 1 in 5 reported no activity. Queensland’s rural communities offer good access to a wide variety of structured and nonstructured activities. Some barriers to physical activity (eg, family commitments) are similar to those reported from urban areas; however, others including climate, culture of exercise, and community leadership are unique to the rural environment.
Unique characteristics of rural environments and populations affect engagement in physical activity. Promotion of healthy lifestyle in rural environments need to be informed by local context and not merely extrapolated from urban situations. Attention must be paid to specific local circumstances which may affect implementation, adoption and participation.