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William H. Clark and Jason R. Franz

increases with walking speed and positively correlates with positive work performed about the ankle during push off. 5 , 7 In addition, the profile of k A across the stance phase mirrors that of net ankle moment and triceps surae muscle activation. Together, these findings allude to activation

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Mostafa Yaghoubi, Philip W. Fink, Wyatt H. Page and Sarah P. Shultz

during locomotion ( 27 ) and exhibit increased lower extremity joint moments ( 22 ) and power ( 44 ), ground reaction forces (GRFs) ( 20 ), and muscle activation during gait ( 9 ). In addition, it has been suggested that changes in the locomotor strategy by OW children reduce mechanical efficiency and

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Ji-Hyun Lee and Tae-Lim Yoon

). Eventually, patients with CAI experience postural-control deficit, and their functional performance could be damaged (self-reported disability). 7 , 9 Many previous studies introduced various exercises for improving balance and functional performance by improving muscle activation in patients with CAI

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Yi-Fen Shih, Ya-Fang Lee and Wen-Yin Chen

the functions of the shoulder complex. 1 Scapular dyskinesis, or alterations in scapular kinematics and muscle activation, has been shown to occur with SIS in previous studies. 1 , 3 – 5 Kibler and McMullen 6 further suggested that proprioception deficits might play a role in the development of

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Hooman Minoonejad, Mohammad Karimizadeh Ardakani, Reza Rajabi, Erik A. Wikstrom and Ali Sharifnezhad

). **Significant difference between the pretest and posttest collapsed means ( P  < .01). ***Significant difference between the experimental and control group collapsed means ( P  < .02). Table 4 Preparatory Muscle Activation Means, SDs, and Effects Sizes per Group Before and After the Hop Stabilization

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Smokey Fermin, Lindsay Larkins, Sarah Beene and David Wetzel

pain and/or ROM deficits, will CE decrease pain and increase ROM? Summary of Search, Best Evidence Appraised, and Key Findings • Ipsilateral muscle activation and muscular strength is significantly increased after performing contralateral maneuvers. • Ipsilateral movement has a significant impact on

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Fábio J. Lanferdini, Rodrigo R. Bini, Bruno M. Baroni, Kelli D. Klein, Felipe P. Carpes and Marco A. Vaz

overdose per irradiated area. 30 Additional studies are necessary to elucidate the optimal dosage for different muscle groups, populations, and exercise types. Any potential effects from LLLT dose could reflect on high- and low-frequency components of lower-limb muscle activation in cycling, given those

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Renato Claudino, Marcio José dos Santos and Giovana Zarpellon Mazo

postural perturbations induced by movable platforms ( Laughton et al., 2003 ; Lin & Woollacott, 2002 ). Potential muscle activation-related delays during CPAs could be more difficult for older adults to restore their postural equilibrium promptly after a body perturbation, which might be one of the

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Gareth Ryan, Heather Johnston and Janice Moreside

which ER was performed (7 levels: 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°). Dependent variables were average and peak muscle activation for each of the infraspinatus, middle deltoid, posterior deltoid, and INFRA/PD. Procedures Surface electromyography (SEMG) was performed on the dominant shoulder (eg

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Pei-Chun Kao and Daniel P. Ferris

During passive lower limb movement, active use of the upper limbs increases unintentional lower limb muscle activation. We hypothesized that faster movement frequencies would amplify lower limb muscle activation during upper limb exertion but would not affect lower limb muscle activation when the upper limbs were relaxed. We studied 10 healthy participants exercising on a recumbent stepping machine that mechanically coupled the four limbs via handles and pedals. Participants exercised at four frequencies (30, 60, 90, 120 steps/min) under four conditions of active and passive movement. Self-driven lower limb motion resulted in greater muscle activation compared to externally driven lower limb motion. Muscle activation amplitude increased with frequency for all conditions except for externally driven stepping. These results indicate that fast upper limb movement facilitates neuromuscular recruitment of lower limb muscles during stepping tasks. If a similar effect occurs in neurologically impaired individuals during active stepping, self-assisted exercise might enhance neuromuscular recruitment during rehabilitation.