response to exercise via increased growth factor/gene expression, increased intracellular water; reduced symptoms of or enhanced recovery from muscle damaging exercise (e.g., DOMS); enhanced recovery from disuse, immobilization, or extreme inactivity such as after injury; improved cognitive processing
Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer
David S. Rowlands, Rhys M. Thorp, Karin Rossler, David F. Graham and Mike J. Rockell
Carbohydrate ingestion after prolonged strenuous exercise enhances recovery, but protein might also be important. In a crossover with 2-wk washout, 10 cyclists completed 2.5 h of intervals followed by 4-h recovery feeding, provided 218 g protein, 435 g carbohydrate, and 79 g fat (protein enriched) or 34 g protein, 640 g carbohydrate, and 79 g fat (isocaloric control). The next morning, cyclists performed 10 maximal constant-work sprints on a Velotron cycle ergometer, each lasting ~2.5 min, at ~5-min intervals. Test validity was established and test reliability and the individual response to the protein-enriched condition estimated by 6 cyclists’ repeating the intervals, recovery feeding, and performance test 2 wk later in the protein-enriched condition. During the 4-h recovery, the protein-enriched feeding had unclear effects on mean concentrations of plasma insulin, cortisol, and growth hormone, but testosterone was 25% higher (90% confidence limits, ± 14%). Protein enrichment also reduced plasma creatine kinase by 33% (±38%) the next morning and reduced tiredness and leg-soreness sensations during the sprints, but effects on mean sprint power were unclear (–1.4%, ±4.3%). The between-subjects trial-to-trial coefficient of variation in overall mean sprint power was 3.1% (±3.4%), whereas the variation in the protein-enriched condition was 5.9% (±6.9%), suggesting that individual responses to the protein-enriched treatment contributed to the unclear performance outcome. To conclude, protein-enriched recovery feeding had no clear effect on next-day performance.
Adam R. Jajtner, Jay R. Hoffman, Adam M. Gonzalez, Phillip R. Worts, Maren S. Fragala and Jeffrey R. Stout
Resistance training is a common form of exercise for competitive and recreational athletes. Enhancing recovery from resistance training may improve the muscle-remodeling processes, stimulating a faster return to peak performance.
To examine the effects of 2 different recovery modalities, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and cold-water immersion (CWI), on performance and biochemical and ultrasonographic measures.
Thirty resistance-trained men (23.1 ± 2.9 y, 175.2 ± 7.1 cm, 82.1 ± 8.4 kg) were randomly assigned to NMES, CWI, or control (CON).
Design and Setting:
All participants completed a high-volume lower-body resistance-training workout on d 1 and returned to the human performance laboratory 24 (24H) and 48 h (48H) postexercise for follow-up testing.
Blood samples were obtained preexercise (PRE) and immediately (IP), 30 min (30P), 24 h (24H), and 48 h (48H) post. Subjects were examined for performance changes in the squat exercise (total repetitions and average power per repetition), biomarkers of inflammation, and changes in cross-sectional area and echo intensity (EI) of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis muscles.
No differences between groups were observed in the number of repetitions (P = .250; power: P = .663). Inferential-based analysis indicated that increases in C-reactive protein concentrations were likely increased by a greater magnitude after CWI compared with CON, while NMES possibly decreased more than CON from IP to 24H. Increases in interleukin-10 concentrations between IP and 30P were likely greater in CWI than NMES but not different from CON. Inferential-based analysis of RF EI indicated a likely decrease for CWI between IP and 48H. No other differences between groups were noted in any other muscle-architecture measures.
Results indicated that CWI induced greater increases in pro- and anti-inflammatory markers, while decreasing RF EI, suggesting that CWI may be effective in enhancing short-term muscle recovery after high-volume bouts of resistance exercise.
Dennis-Peter Born, Billy Sperlich and Hans-Christer Holmberg
To assess original research addressing the effect of the application of compression clothing on sport performance and recovery after exercise, a computer-based literature research was performed in July 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Studies examining the effect of compression clothing on endurance, strength and power, motor control, and physiological, psychological, and biomechanical parameters during or after exercise were included, and means and measures of variability of the outcome measures were recorded to estimate the effect size (Hedges g) and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparisons of experimental (compression) and control trials (noncompression). The characteristics of the compression clothing, participants, and study design were also extracted. The original research from peer-reviewed journals was examined using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Results indicated small effect sizes for the application of compression clothing during exercise for shortduration sprints (10–60 m), vertical-jump height, extending time to exhaustion (such as running at VO2max or during incremental tests), and time-trial performance (3–60 min). When compression clothing was applied for recovery purposes after exercise, small to moderate effect sizes were observed in recovery of maximal strength and power, especially vertical-jump exercise; reductions in muscle swelling and perceived muscle pain; blood lactate removal; and increases in body temperature. These results suggest that the application of compression clothing may assist athletic performance and recovery in given situations with consideration of the effects magnitude and practical relevance.
Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems
.g., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total antioxidant status, lipid hydroperoxides, and protein carbonyls) and inflammation (e.g., interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, C-reactive protein) following muscle-damaging and metabolically demanding exercise ( Bell et al., 2014 , 2015 , 2016 ; Howatson et
Jesús Seco-Calvo, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, César Calvo-Lobo and Alfredo Córdova
physical agent. 2 , 3 Both muscle fatigue and muscle damage are known to have specific underlying mechanisms that reduce muscle strength and work capacity, such as impairment of glycogen storage, sarcomere disruption, increases in muscle protein breakdown, and inflammatory responses. 5 In addition, the
Achraf Ammar, Stephen J. Bailey, Omar Hammouda, Khaled Trabelsi, Nabil Merzigui, Kais El Abed, Tarak Driss, Anita Hökelmann, Fatma Ayadi, Hamdi Chtourou, Adnen Gharbi and Mouna Turki
-speed running between NG and AT. 12 , 17 Stone et al 13 were the first to assess muscle damage response to a 90-minute soccer simulation protocol played on AT and NG and reported that blood creatine kinase (CK) concentration was similar for both surfaces immediately and up to 48-hours posttest. Because CK is
Gustavo Monnerat, Carlos A.R. Sánchez, Caleb G.M. Santos, Dailson Paulucio, Rodolfo Velasque, Geisa P.C. Evaristo, Joseph A.M. Evaristo, Fabio C.S. Nogueira, Gilberto B. Domont, Mauricio Serrato, Antonio S. Lima, David Bishop, Antonio C. Campos de Carvalho and Fernando A.M.S. Pompeu
: carbohydrate availability, dehydration and salt loss, acidosis, muscle damage, and central nervous system alterations, among others. 17 Due to its complexity, a wide evaluation of human responses to exercise was limited, mainly due to technical aspects. As a milestone, in 2010, Lewis et al 14 first applied
Llion A. Roberts, Johnpaul Caia, Lachlan P. James, Tannath J. Scott and Vincent G. Kelly
< .05, group mean change from Post. The muscle damage marker, myoglobin, changed equally in both conditions (time main effect: P = .002; no condition or interaction effect). Concentrations increased pre–post exercise ( P = .005–.007, d = 1.53–1.56), remaining elevated at 5 hours ( P = .006
Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi and Stefano Lazzer
uphill and downhill sections. 1 Whereas uphill sections stress to a greater extent aerobic metabolism, in downhill sections, as a consequence of the repeated and forceful eccentric contractions, muscle damage and inflammation responses ensue. 2 In the past few years, several physiological aspects of