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David S. Rowlands, Rhys M. Thorp, Karin Rossler, David F. Graham and Mike J. Rockell

Carbohydrate ingestion after prolonged strenuous exercise enhances recovery, but protein might also be important. In a crossover with 2-wk washout, 10 cyclists completed 2.5 h of intervals followed by 4-h recovery feeding, provided 218 g protein, 435 g carbohydrate, and 79 g fat (protein enriched) or 34 g protein, 640 g carbohydrate, and 79 g fat (isocaloric control). The next morning, cyclists performed 10 maximal constant-work sprints on a Velotron cycle ergometer, each lasting ~2.5 min, at ~5-min intervals. Test validity was established and test reliability and the individual response to the protein-enriched condition estimated by 6 cyclists’ repeating the intervals, recovery feeding, and performance test 2 wk later in the protein-enriched condition. During the 4-h recovery, the protein-enriched feeding had unclear effects on mean concentrations of plasma insulin, cortisol, and growth hormone, but testosterone was 25% higher (90% confidence limits, ± 14%). Protein enrichment also reduced plasma creatine kinase by 33% (±38%) the next morning and reduced tiredness and leg-soreness sensations during the sprints, but effects on mean sprint power were unclear (–1.4%, ±4.3%). The between-subjects trial-to-trial coefficient of variation in overall mean sprint power was 3.1% (±3.4%), whereas the variation in the protein-enriched condition was 5.9% (±6.9%), suggesting that individual responses to the protein-enriched treatment contributed to the unclear performance outcome. To conclude, protein-enriched recovery feeding had no clear effect on next-day performance.

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Dennis-Peter Born, Billy Sperlich and Hans-Christer Holmberg

To assess original research addressing the effect of the application of compression clothing on sport performance and recovery after exercise, a computer-based literature research was performed in July 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Studies examining the effect of compression clothing on endurance, strength and power, motor control, and physiological, psychological, and biomechanical parameters during or after exercise were included, and means and measures of variability of the outcome measures were recorded to estimate the effect size (Hedges g) and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparisons of experimental (compression) and control trials (noncompression). The characteristics of the compression clothing, participants, and study design were also extracted. The original research from peer-reviewed journals was examined using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Results indicated small effect sizes for the application of compression clothing during exercise for shortduration sprints (10–60 m), vertical-jump height, extending time to exhaustion (such as running at VO2max or during incremental tests), and time-trial performance (3–60 min). When compression clothing was applied for recovery purposes after exercise, small to moderate effect sizes were observed in recovery of maximal strength and power, especially vertical-jump exercise; reductions in muscle swelling and perceived muscle pain; blood lactate removal; and increases in body temperature. These results suggest that the application of compression clothing may assist athletic performance and recovery in given situations with consideration of the effects magnitude and practical relevance.

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Jesús Seco-Calvo, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, César Calvo-Lobo and Alfredo Córdova

physical agent. 2 , 3 Both muscle fatigue and muscle damage are known to have specific underlying mechanisms that reduce muscle strength and work capacity, such as impairment of glycogen storage, sarcomere disruption, increases in muscle protein breakdown, and inflammatory responses. 5 In addition, the

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Achraf Ammar, Stephen J. Bailey, Omar Hammouda, Khaled Trabelsi, Nabil Merzigui, Kais El Abed, Tarak Driss, Anita Hökelmann, Fatma Ayadi, Hamdi Chtourou, Adnen Gharbi and Mouna Turki

-speed running between NG and AT. 12 , 17 Stone et al 13 were the first to assess muscle damage response to a 90-minute soccer simulation protocol played on AT and NG and reported that blood creatine kinase (CK) concentration was similar for both surfaces immediately and up to 48-hours posttest. Because CK is

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Llion A. Roberts, Johnpaul Caia, Lachlan P. James, Tannath J. Scott and Vincent G. Kelly

 < .05, group mean change from Post. The muscle damage marker, myoglobin, changed equally in both conditions (time main effect: P  = .002; no condition or interaction effect). Concentrations increased pre–post exercise ( P  = .005–.007, d  = 1.53–1.56), remaining elevated at 5 hours ( P  = .006

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Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi and Stefano Lazzer

uphill and downhill sections. 1 Whereas uphill sections stress to a greater extent aerobic metabolism, in downhill sections, as a consequence of the repeated and forceful eccentric contractions, muscle damage and inflammation responses ensue. 2 In the past few years, several physiological aspects of

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Mohamed Romdhani, Nizar Souissi, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari and Omar Hammouda

performances. 2 – 4 In addition, PSD increases muscle damage and impairs the recovery from high-intensity exercise. 2 , 5 , 6 Certainly, finding a strategy to counteract the effect of sleep curtailment on subsequent day performance seems to be of major importance to athletes, coaches, and sport scientists

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Kazunori Nosaka, P.▀ Sacco and K.▀ Mawatari

This study investigated the effect of a supplement containing 9 essential and 3 non-essential amino acids on muscle soreness and damage by comparing two endurance exercise bouts of the elbow fexors with amino acid or placebo supplementation in a double blind crossover design. The supplement was ingested 30 min before (10 h post-fasting) and immediately after exercise (Experiment 1), or 30 min before (2-3 h after breakfast), immediately post, and 8 more occasions over 4-day post-exercise (Experiment 2). Changes in muscle soreness and indicators of muscle damage for 4 days following exercise were compared between supplement conditions using two-way ANOVA. No significant differences between conditions were evident for Experiment 1; however, plasma creatine kinase, aldolase, myoglobin, and muscle soreness were significantly lower for the amino acid versus placebo condition in Experiment 2. These results suggest that amino acid supplementation attenuates DOMS and muscle damage when ingested in recovery days.

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Kazunori Nosaka and Priscilla M. Clarkson

This study was done to determine whether eccentric exercise that causes muscle damage will produce an increase in plasma levels of zinc. Changes in total plasma zinc concentration (Zn) were examined following an eccentric and concentric exercise of the forearm flexors. Eight female subjects performed 24 maximal concentric actions (CON) with one arm and 10-14 days later performed 24 maximal eccentric actions (ECC) with the other arm. Maximal isometric force, elbow joint angles at a relaxed (RANG) and flexed position (FANG), muscle soreness, and plasma creatine kinase activity (CK) were measured as indicators of muscle damage. Zn levels were determined at the same time as CK. Maximal isometric force, RANG, FANG, and muscle soreness showed large changes after ECC but little if any change after CON. CK increased significantly after ECC but did not change after CON. Neither ECC nor CON showed significant changes in Zn following exercise. If: is concluded that exercise-induced muscle damage does not appear to produce an increase in plasma zinc levels.

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Sonja Terblanche, Timothy D. Noakes, Steven C. Dennis, De Wet Marais and Michael Eckert

This study examined the effect of magnesium supplementation on muscle magnesium content, on running performance during a 42-kni marathon footrace, and on muscle damage and the rate of recovery of muscle function following the race. Twenty athletes were divided equally into two matched groups and were studied for 4 weeks before and 6 weeks after a marathon in a double-blind trial; the experimental group received magnesium supplement (365 mg per day) and the control group, placebo. Magnesium supplementation did not increase either muscle or serum magnesium concentrations and had no measurable effect on 42-km marathon running performance. Extra magnesium ingestion also had no influence on the extent of muscle damage or the rate of recovery of muscle function. The latter was significantly reduced immediately after the marathon but returned to normal within 1 week. Thus, magnesium supplementation in magnesium-replete subjects did not enhance performance or increase resistance to muscle damage during the race, or the rate of recovery of muscle function following the race.