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Grant E. Norte, Katherine R. Knaus, Chris Kuenze, Geoffrey G. Handsfield, Craig H. Meyer, Silvia S. Blemker and Joseph M. Hart

35 muscles by comparing (1) normalized muscle volumes to a healthy population, (2) limb symmetry presurgery and postsurgery, and (3) percentage change presurgery to postsurgery. Given the known impairments in quadriceps function (eg, torque and central activation) that often accompany ACL-R and the

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Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies and Kevin Enright

, 1994 ). Changes to reproductive and metabolic hormones in FP athletes have been observed in the precompetition phase, including decreases in estradiol, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and leptin (Table  1 ). These hormones were normalized within 4–16 weeks postcompetition

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Lucinda E. Bouillon, Michael Hofener, Andrew O’Donnel, Amanda Milligan and Craig Obrock

between the iliac crest and base of the patella 15 Tibialis anterior Parallel and just lateral to the medial shaft of the tibia, approximately one-fourth to one-third of distance between the knee and ankle 15 For normalization of surface electromyography (SEMG) data, 3 maximal voluntary isometric

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Jantine Slinger, Eric van Breda and Harm Kuipers

The article presents the current performance capacity in 11–15 year old Dutch adolescents who participated in an incremental cycle test (n = 509) and or in a shuttle run test (N = 1,198). Cycle test results increased significantly with age in both genders, also after normalization to body weight. Shuttle run test results increased significantly with age only in boys. Compared with previous data, the absolute performance capacity in the cycle tests was comparable to data from 15 years ago, whereas the performance capacity normalized to kg body weight and the shuttle run test results seem to be fairly lower compared with the former data.

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Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo, Vinícius Yan Santos Nascimento, Rafaela Joyce Barbosa Torres, Francis Trombini-Souza, David Behm and Ana Carolina Rodarti Pitangui

-up exercise were normalized by the root mean square maximum value obtained in 3 maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) collected during manual muscular testing for each muscle. For each muscle, 3 MVICs were performed, in which the contraction was held for 5 seconds, with a 1-minute interval between

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Adam Kelly and Justin Stanek

control. For the successful trials to be recorded and used for data analysis, they had to be completed in succession, and trials with errors were discarded. Reaches were normalized by leg length, which was assessed while the participant was supine. A cloth tape measure was used to quantify the distance

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Kevin McCurdy and John Walker

combined EMG levels were determined using a root mean square calculation from 3 repetitions. Hip and knee motion were synchronized to the EMG levels. EMG data were normalized using a percentage of the maximum voluntary isometric contraction for each muscle. Hip motion was determined using a sensor that was

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James W. Youdas, Hannah E. Baartman, Brian J. Gahlon, Tyler J. Kohnen, Robert J. Sparling and John H. Hollman

fourth-order Butterworth filter and processed with a root mean square algorithm over 250-ms time constants with sliding windows. Data from each of the 8 muscles were normalized to their respective MVIC trials. We identified peak recruitment during the concentric phase of each repetition and calculated

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Karl Fullam, Brian Caulfield, Garrett F. Coughlan, Wayne McNulty, David Campbell and Eamonn Delahunt

limb kinematics and dynamic postural stability in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed female athletes . J Athl Train . 2013 ; 48 ( 2 ): 172 – 185 . PubMed ID: 23672381 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-48.2.05 10.4085/1062-6050-48.2.05 23672381 23. Gribble P , Hertel J . Considerations for normalizing

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Anita M. Rivera-Brown and José R. Quiñones-González

sample contamination and/or evaporation ( Baker, 2017 ). Samples were normalized to ion chromatography using the following regression equation: y  = 0.77 x  + 11.5 ( Baker et al., 2014 ). WB sweat [Na + ] was estimated from regional sweat [Na + ] using regression equations for the posterior forearm