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Lesley Ferkins, David Shilbury and Gael McDonald

This study investigated how boards of national sport organizations might enhance their strategic capability. Utilizing an action research method and focusing on the case of New Zealand Football (soccer), findings established that greater board involvement in strategy advanced the board’s ability to perform its strategic function. Further findings determined the importance of shared leadership between the board and the CEO, the complex interplay in balancing this relationship and the need to integrate strategy into board processes.

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Stephen W. Dittmore, G. Clayton Stoldt and T. Christopher Greenwell

This case study explores the use a Major League Baseball team’s organizational weblog. Organizational weblogs are forums for the 2-way exchange of information and commentary between an organization and its publics. Most sport organizations, however, have yet to embrace the weblog as a form of organizational communication. Recent research suggests a greater need to understand how sport organizations might use weblogs to outreach to target audiences from a communications perspective. This study assesses whether readers perceive an organization’s official weblog to be an effective form of 2-way communication and profiles the readers of an organizational weblog based on demographics, consumption patterns, and points of attachment. Results showed that readers perceived the organizational weblog to be highly conversational and effective at communicating organizational commitment. In addition, readers were voracious media consumers of the team’s games, repeat ticket customers, and highly identified, both with the sport and with the team.

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Baptiste Fournier, Maxime Lussier, Nathalie Bier, Johanne Filiatrault, Manon Parisien, Miguel Chagnon and Marie-Ève Mathieu

(muscle strength, cognitive function, depression, etc.). As a result, many governmental organizations have made recommendations to guide the practice of physical activity in older adults. The Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology recommends that all adults, including those aged 65 years and older

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Ronald E. Smith and Jim Johnson

This article describes a psychological skills training program developed for the Houston Astros’ minor league player development program. It represents a mode of consultation that includes the training and supervising of an appropriate professional within the organization who delivers the actual training to the athletes. The goal is to provide a quality and continuity of services that would be difficult to accomplish using the traditional outside consultant model. Issues and problems that arose in the implementation of the program are discussed, and data derived from an evaluation of the program are presented.

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Graham Cuskelly, Norman McIntyre and Alistair Boag

The commitment of volunteers is critical to the effective organization and delivery of community-based sport. This paper examined the development of organizational commitment amongst volunteers in relation to several organizational factors and personal characteristics. Using data from a 3-wave longitudinal study of volunteer administrators (n = 328) drawn from 52 randomly selected community-based sport organizations, organizational commitment was examined in relation to a range of variables including personal characteristics (sociodemographics), behavioral commitment, volunteering benefits, structural attributes (organizational size, budget), and process characteristics operationalized as perceptions about committee functioning. Using hierarchical regression analysis, the study found evidence of a directional relationship between perceived committee functioning and organizational commitment. Organizational commitment was also predicted by age group, occupation, years of organizational membership, and time spent on administration. The study demonstrated a temporal relationship between committee functioning and organizational commitment and concluded with a discussion of practical implications and recommendations for further research.

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Shannon Kerwin, Joanne MacLean and Dina Bell-Laroche

The theory of practicing values may provide valuable insight into the role of organizational values in sport organizations. This is particularly relevant in the nonprofit sport sector where managers operate with limited budgets and organizations may subscribe to specific ethical-social values related to organizational performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of organizational values on the performance of nonprofit sport organizations and the possible mediating effect of employing a management-by-values approach. Online questionnaires were collected from 24 national sport organizations, with a total sample of 103 participants. Results indicate management by values fully mediates the influence of ethical-social organizational values on organizational performance. These results are explained using the theory of practicing values, which emphasizes the need to intentionally manage values within sport organizations. Implications for research and practice are presented.

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Gordon A. Olafson and Dennis W. Hastings

This paper examines the effect of personal style on the administrative behavior of executive directors of sports governing bodies. Seventy-two executive directors from the National Sport and Recreation Centre in Ottawa and the Ontario Sport Administrative Centre in Toronto completed surveys designed to describe personal style (Personal Style Inventory) and administrative behavior (Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in behavior based on personal style. The best model of prediction included the behavioral variables of representation, reconciliation, structure, tolerance of freedom, consideration, and predictive accuracy. The results of this study support the hypothesis put forward by Kilmann and Herden (1976) that a person’s behavior in a decision-making role may be a reflection of personal style. These findings suggest that it may be important to understand the contribution of personal style to the decision-making process. Further, this may be a helpful exercise in understanding administrators in many organizations and, particularly as it pertains to this study, in volunteer sport organizations.

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Hal Hansen and Roger Gauthier

The heads of marketing and promotion for major professional and university sport organizations were asked to rate the relative importance of 19 marketing objectives on a 5-point Likert scale; 164 responded. Factor analysis resulted in the creation of six factors: player quality, community image of team, entertainment value of sport, team marketing, team as a contender, and attractiveness of game location. ANOVA, Tukey, and student t tests used on the data resulted in significant differences between leagues for the two factors of community image of team and entertainment value of sport. Professional teams favored 5 of 6 objectives over university teams: value of ticket price, entertainment value of the sport, image of the team, community-oriented nature of the team, and availability of athletes for community events.

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Terry R. Haggerty and Denise Denomme

Multivariate analyses of responses from 327 undergraduate student members of 17 university recreational sport clubs indicated that eight variables jointly explained 35.3% of the variance in members’ organizational commitment. They were (a) the importance of management related items, (b) the emphasis the club placed on delivering its service, (c) the lack of emphasis the club placed on status related items, (d) the emphasis the club placed on social aspects, (e) members’ current involvement in physical activity, (f) reduced travel time to club gatherings, (g) increased preparation time for club activities, and (h) gender, with males expressing more commitment than females. The study concluded that management related factors were among the most important aspects in affecting member commitment in sport clubs. Implications for practicing managers and researchers were addressed.

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Brian P. Soebbing, Pamela Wicker and Daniel Weimar

Previous research has examined the effect of changes in upper management positions on actual organizational performance; however, the influence of leadership changes on performance expectations has been largely neglected. This gap in the literature is surprising given that failure to meet expectations leads to dismissal. The purpose of the present research is to analyze how coaching changes affect expectations of a sports team’s performance. Betting lines are used as performance expectations because they are unbiased forecasts of game outcomes. This study uses data from 13 seasons of the German Football Bundesliga. Significant positive timelagged effects on performance expectations are evident when examining underlying expected performance. These positive effects are evident 8 weeks after the leadership change, indicating that new leaders are expected to need some time before significant performance improvements are expected to occur.