Although identity, image, and reputation are important issues for the sport management field, little research has examined how sport organizations construct and manage such intangible yet critical aspects of their organizations. This article addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the process of identity construction within organizing committees of major sporting events. The insights gained from two case studies indicate that committees draw on three types of identity referents: the nature of the event, context, and key individuals of organizing committees. These referents are projected as images from the organizing committee to various stakeholder groups and then reflected back to the organizing committee. In addition, images are often received by stakeholders through indirect channels of transmission, especially the media, further complicating the process of image and identity management. Finally, organizing committees attempt to manage the process primarily via verbal and symbolic communication strategies.
Milena M. Parent and Peter O. Foreman
Lesley Ferkins, David Shilbury and Gael McDonald
This study investigated how boards of national sport organizations might enhance their strategic capability. Utilizing an action research method and focusing on the case of New Zealand Football (soccer), findings established that greater board involvement in strategy advanced the board’s ability to perform its strategic function. Further findings determined the importance of shared leadership between the board and the CEO, the complex interplay in balancing this relationship and the need to integrate strategy into board processes.
Graham Cuskelly, Norman McIntyre and Alistair Boag
The commitment of volunteers is critical to the effective organization and delivery of community-based sport. This paper examined the development of organizational commitment amongst volunteers in relation to several organizational factors and personal characteristics. Using data from a 3-wave longitudinal study of volunteer administrators (n = 328) drawn from 52 randomly selected community-based sport organizations, organizational commitment was examined in relation to a range of variables including personal characteristics (sociodemographics), behavioral commitment, volunteering benefits, structural attributes (organizational size, budget), and process characteristics operationalized as perceptions about committee functioning. Using hierarchical regression analysis, the study found evidence of a directional relationship between perceived committee functioning and organizational commitment. Organizational commitment was also predicted by age group, occupation, years of organizational membership, and time spent on administration. The study demonstrated a temporal relationship between committee functioning and organizational commitment and concluded with a discussion of practical implications and recommendations for further research.
Shannon Kerwin, Joanne MacLean and Dina Bell-Laroche
The theory of practicing values may provide valuable insight into the role of organizational values in sport organizations. This is particularly relevant in the nonprofit sport sector where managers operate with limited budgets and organizations may subscribe to specific ethical-social values related to organizational performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of organizational values on the performance of nonprofit sport organizations and the possible mediating effect of employing a management-by-values approach. Online questionnaires were collected from 24 national sport organizations, with a total sample of 103 participants. Results indicate management by values fully mediates the influence of ethical-social organizational values on organizational performance. These results are explained using the theory of practicing values, which emphasizes the need to intentionally manage values within sport organizations. Implications for research and practice are presented.
Baptiste Fournier, Maxime Lussier, Nathalie Bier, Johanne Filiatrault, Manon Parisien, Miguel Chagnon and Marie-Ève Mathieu
(muscle strength, cognitive function, depression, etc.). As a result, many governmental organizations have made recommendations to guide the practice of physical activity in older adults. The Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology recommends that all adults, including those aged 65 years and older
Ronald E. Smith and Jim Johnson
This article describes a psychological skills training program developed for the Houston Astros’ minor league player development program. It represents a mode of consultation that includes the training and supervising of an appropriate professional within the organization who delivers the actual training to the athletes. The goal is to provide a quality and continuity of services that would be difficult to accomplish using the traditional outside consultant model. Issues and problems that arose in the implementation of the program are discussed, and data derived from an evaluation of the program are presented.
Gordon A. Olafson and Dennis W. Hastings
This paper examines the effect of personal style on the administrative behavior of executive directors of sports governing bodies. Seventy-two executive directors from the National Sport and Recreation Centre in Ottawa and the Ontario Sport Administrative Centre in Toronto completed surveys designed to describe personal style (Personal Style Inventory) and administrative behavior (Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in behavior based on personal style. The best model of prediction included the behavioral variables of representation, reconciliation, structure, tolerance of freedom, consideration, and predictive accuracy. The results of this study support the hypothesis put forward by Kilmann and Herden (1976) that a person’s behavior in a decision-making role may be a reflection of personal style. These findings suggest that it may be important to understand the contribution of personal style to the decision-making process. Further, this may be a helpful exercise in understanding administrators in many organizations and, particularly as it pertains to this study, in volunteer sport organizations.
Daniel Lock, Kevin Filo, Thilo Kunkel and James L. Skinner
In this manuscript, we use Bitektine’s (2011) theory of organizational social judgments to develop a framework to Capture Perceptions of Organizational Legitimacy (CPOL). We outline a three-stage framework as a method to measure the perceived dimensions on which constituents scrutinize a sport organization’s legitimacy. In stage one of the framework, we defined the organizational context of a nonprofit sport organization in Sydney, Australia to establish the classification, purpose, and relationship of the focal entity to its constituents. In stage two, we distributed a qualitative questionnaire (N = 279) to identify the perceived dimensions on which constituents scrutinized organizational action. In stage 3 we distributed a quantitative questionnaire (N = 860) to test six perceived dimensions, which emerged during stage two of the CPOL framework. The six dimensions explained 63% of respondents’ overall organizational judgment, providing support for the CPOL framework as a context-driven process to measure constituent perceptions of the legitimacy of sport organizations.
Holly Thorpe, Lyndsay Hayhurst and Megan Chawansky
Since the mid-2000s, there has been a “turn to girls” and a “girl powering” of development ( Koffman & Gill, 2013 ). Originally coined by the Nike Foundation in 2005, the “Girl Effect” has been taken up by a wide range of governmental organizations, charities, and non-governmental organizations
Brian P. Soebbing, Pamela Wicker and Daniel Weimar
Previous research has examined the effect of changes in upper management positions on actual organizational performance; however, the influence of leadership changes on performance expectations has been largely neglected. This gap in the literature is surprising given that failure to meet expectations leads to dismissal. The purpose of the present research is to analyze how coaching changes affect expectations of a sports team’s performance. Betting lines are used as performance expectations because they are unbiased forecasts of game outcomes. This study uses data from 13 seasons of the German Football Bundesliga. Significant positive timelagged effects on performance expectations are evident when examining underlying expected performance. These positive effects are evident 8 weeks after the leadership change, indicating that new leaders are expected to need some time before significant performance improvements are expected to occur.