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Vincent O. Onywera, Stella K. Muthuri, Sylvester Hayker, Lucy-Joy M. Wachira, Florence Kyallo, Robert O. Mang’eni, Peter Bukhala and Caleb Mireri

Background:

Kenya’s 2016 report card aimed to highlight the health and well-being of Kenyan children and youth using the best available evidence on the physical activity of Kenyan children and youth. The report pointed at areas where Kenya was succeeding and areas where more action is required.

Methods:

Inclusive analyses of available data sources on the core indicators related to physical activity and body weights of Kenyan children and youth (5 to 17 years) were conducted. These were assigned grades based on a set of specific criteria.

Results:

Results show that Active Play, Active Transportation, Overweight and Obesity, and Sedentary Behavior were favorable with a grade of B. Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport Participation, and School (infrastructure, policies, and programs) each received a grade of C, while Family and Peers, Government and Nongovernment organizations, as well as the Community and the Built Environment were assigned grade D.

Conclusions:

Over 72% of Kenyan children and youth use active transportation to and from school and in their daily lives. Although majority of the children and youth have normal body weight, there is need to ensure that they meet and maintain the physical activity levels recommended by the World Health Organization. More needs to be done especially in relation to the governmental and nongovernmental organizations, organized sports participation, as well as involvement of family and peers in promoting healthy active lifestyles among Kenyan children and youth. More representative data for all indicators are required in Kenya.

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Johannes Carl, Gorden Sudeck and Klaus Pfeifer

also prevalent in children, with 76.2% of all boys and 84.6% of all girls leading lifestyles that are insufficiently physically active. 7 Against this backdrop, the World Health Organization 8 recently released a Global Action Plan on PA suggesting measures to achieve a relative reduction of 15% in

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Hongjun Yu, Xiaoping Chen, Weimo Zhu and Chunmei Cao

Purpose:

To examine the effectiveness of threshold and polarized models in the training organization of Chinese top-level sprint speed skaters using a 2-y quasi-experimental design.

Methods:

Two years (2004–05 and 2005–06 seasons) of the Chinese national speed-skating team’s daily training load (N = 9; 5 men, 23.6 ± 1.7 y, weight 76.6 ± 4.1 kg, competitive experience 5.0 ± 0.8 y, 500-m time 35.45 ± 0.72 s, 1000-m time 71.18 ± 2.28 s; 4 women, 25.3 ± 6.8 y, 73.0 ± 8.5 kg, 6.3 ± 3.5 y, 37.81 ± 0.46 s, 75.70 ± 0.81 s) were collected and analyzed. Each season’s training load included overall duration (calculated in min and km), frequency (calculated by overall sessions), and training intensity (measured by ear blood lactate or estimated by heart rate), Their performances at national, World Cup, and Olympic competitions during the 2 seasons (2004–06), as well as lactate data measured 15 and 30 min after these competitions, were also collected and analyzed. Based on the lactate data (<2, 2–4, >4 mmol/L), training zones were classified as low, moderate, and high intensity.

Results:

The total durations and frequencies of the training load were similar across the seasons, but a threshold-training model distribution was used in 2004–05, and a polarized-training-load organization in 2005–06. Under the polarized-training model, or load organization, all speed skaters’ performance improved and their lactate after competition decreased considerably.

Conclusion:

Training-intensity distribution based on a polarized-training model led to the success in top Chinese sprint speed skaters in the 2005–06 season.

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Steven P. Hooker

The mission of the California Active Aging Project is to enable and encourage Californians over 50 years of age to lead healthier lives by promoting physical activity and creating social and physical environments that support active aging. The article briefly describes the approaches the California Department of Health Services is taking to promote physical activity to older adults. Integral to the selected approaches is the translation of research into practice, engagement of diverse agencies and organizations as partners, and strengthening of community capacity to promote physical activity.

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Meni Koslowsky and Ohad Maoz

In organizational research, commitment has generally been used to predict behaviors such as turnover or absence. Little research has been done with commitment as a potential discriminator between occupations. The present study used commitment in conjunction with personality variables to differentiate between soccer and track and field referees. Data collected from 86 subjects showed that both types of variables individually and in combination significantly discriminate between occupations. In combination, commitment and personality classified more than 81 % of the referees into the correct group. Implications for other areas of research were discussed.

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Mark L. Latash, John P. Scholz and Gregor Schöner

Driven by recent empirical studies, we offer a new understanding of the degrees of freedom problem, and propose a refined concept of synergy as a neural organization that ensures a one-to-many mapping of variables providing for both stability of important performance variables and flexibility of motor patterns to deal with possible perturbations and/or secondary tasks. Empirical evidence is reviewed, including a discussion of the operationalization of stability/flexibility through the method of the uncontrolled manifold. We show how this concept establishes links between the various accounts for how movement is organized in redundant effector systems.

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Ángel Luis Clemente Remón, Víctor Jiménez Díaz-Benito, José Emilio Jiménez Beatty and José Antonio Santacruz Lozano

, 2015 ). The World Health Organization ( 2002 ) has stated the need to promote “active ageing.” This is the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation, and security to improve the quality of life as people age. Active aging depends on a variety of influences, or “determinants.” Among

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Paul A. Estabrooks, Elizabeth H. Fox, Shawna E. Doerksen, Michael H. Bradshaw and Abby C. King

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of an on-site physical activity (PA) program offered with congregate meals. Study 1 surveyed meal-site users on their likelihood to participate. Study 2 used meal-site-manager interviews and site visits to determine organizational feasibility. Study 3, a controlled pilot study, randomized meal sites to a 12-week group-based social-cognitive (GBSC) intervention or a standard-care control. Studies 1 and 2 indicated that most meal-site users would participate in an on-site PA program, and meal sites had well-suited physical resources and strong organizational support for this type of program. In Study 3, GBSC participants increased their weekly PA over those in the control condition (p < .05, ES = .79). Results indicated that changes in task cohesion might have mediated intervention effectiveness. These studies demonstrate that a PA program offered in this venue is feasible, is effective in promoting PA, and could have a strong public health impact.

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Cyril Burdet and Patrice Rougier

To question the relation between uni- and bipedal postural skills, 21 subjects were required to stand on a force platform through uni- and bipedal conditions. These two protocols are commonly used paradigms to assess the balance capacities of healthy and disabled patients. The recorded displacements of the center of pressure (CP) were decomposed along mediolateral and anteroposterior axes and assessed through variance positions and parameters obtained from fractional Brownian motion (fBm) modeling to determine the nature and the spatiotemporal organization of the successive controlling mechanisms. The variances underline the relative independence of the two tasks. Nevertheless, as highlighted by the fBm framework, postural correction is initiated for the unipedal stance after shorter time delays and longer covered distances. When compared to bipedal standing, one of the main characteristics of unipedal standing is to induce better-controlled CP trajectories, as deduced from the scaling regimes computed from the fBm modeling. Lastly, the control of the CP trajectories during the shortest time intervals along the anteroposterior axis appears identical for both uni- and bipedal conditions. Unipedal and bipedal standing controls should thus be viewed as two complementary tasks, each providing specific and complementary insights into the postural control organization.

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Maria E. Hermosillo-Gallardo, Russell Jago and Simon J. Sebire

Background:

Approximately 17.4% of people in Mexico self-report physical activity levels below the World Health Organization’s guidelines and an average sedentary time of 16 hours per day.1 Low physical activity has been associated with noncommunicable disease risk factors and previous research suggests that urbanicity might be an important determinant of physical activity. The aim of this study was to measure urbanicity in Mexico and assess if it is associated with physical activity and sitting time.

Methods:

A sample of 2880 men and 4211 women aged 20 to 69 was taken from the 2012 Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey and multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity, sitting time and urbanicity; adjusting for sex, education level, socioeconomic status and Body Mass Index. The urbanicity score and the 7 urbanicity subscores were estimated from the CENSUS 2010.

Results:

The subscores of demographic, economic activity, diversity and communication were negatively associated with physical activity. Sitting time was positively associated with the overall urbanicity, and the demographic and health subscores.

Conclusions:

There was evidence of associations between urbanicity and physical activity in Mexico.