In this paper we propose that research in motor behavior has failed to meet the obligation of studying how children learn important sport skills. In particular, understanding the specific sport knowledge base is essential to studying skilled sport behavior. To support this view we review the research in the cognitive area relative to the development of expertise. We then attempt to justify why a similar approach is useful for motor behavior researchers and why they should undertake the study of sport skill acquisition. Finally, we offer a paradigm within which sport skill research might take place.
Jerry R. Thomas, Karen E. French and Charlotte A. Humphries
Jim McKay and David Rowe
In this paper the ideological relationships between the media and Australian sport are examined from a critical perspective. After outlining the contributions of political economy, structuralism, and cultural studies to the critical paradigm, we argue that the Australian media have two main ideological effects. First, they legitimate masculine hegemony, capitalist rationality, consensus, and militaristic nationalism. Second, they marginalize, trivialize, and fragment alternative ideologies of sport. We conclude by suggesting some worthwhile topics for future research and by affirming that politicizing media representations of sport is an important part of the counter-hegemonic struggle in patriarchal capitalist societies.
Lance B. Green
The purpose of this treatise is to provide an educational text that (a) cites existing literature supporting a mind-body paradigm for rehabilitation from psychophysiological and psychomotor perspectives, (b) demonstrates the application of imagery techniques within the chronology of an athletic injury, and (c) describes the performance-related criteria to which an athlete can compare his or her progress during rehabilitation. The chronology includes the period of time preceding the injury, the attention given to the athlete immediately following the injury, and the subsequent rehabilitation program leading to the athlete’s return to practice and competition. Examples of imagery experientials are used to illustrate its application throughout the chronology.
Like capitalism, Marxism constantly experiences contradictions and crises to which it reacts, adapts, and somehow survives. Currently, Marxism is under attack by post-Marxist critical theorists and certain feminist scholars. In this paper, some of the criticisms made by these writers are applied to neo-Marxist approaches to sport. It is contended that the specific critiques of Marxism need to be situated in a wider framework that is concerned with theorizing all forms of domination (i.e., economic, sexual, ethnic/racial, and political) in sport. Some recent topics researched by neo-Marxists are used to illustrate the theoretical problems raised by restricting any critical theory of sport to the Marxist paradigm.
Dae Hee Kwak, Stephen McDaniel and Ki Tak Kim
The current study revisited the satisfaction-loyalty paradigm in a hedonic consumption context that involves a learning component. In particular, this study involved actual users (N = 328) of a specific sport video game (FIFA soccer), to examine the structural relationships among the constructs of: game satisfaction, hedonic attitudes toward the brand, gaming skill, and brand loyalty. Contrary to existing research in this area, SEM results indicated that customer satisfaction did not have a direct effect on loyalty. The relationship between game satisfaction and loyalty was mediated by positive brand attitudes and perceived gaming skill. The applied and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed along with limitations and future directions for research.
Shaea A. Alkahtani, Nuala M. Byrne, Andrew P. Hills and Neil A. King
Compensatory responses may attenuate the effectiveness of exercise training in weight management. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of moderate- and high-intensity interval training on eating behavior compensation.
Using a crossover design, 10 overweight and obese men participated in 4-week moderate (MIIT) and high (HIIT) intensity interval training. MIIT consisted of 5-min cycling stages at ±20% of mechanical work at 45%VO2peak, and HIIT consisted of alternate 30-s work at 90%VO2peak and 30-s rests, for 30 to 45 min. Assessments included a constant-load exercise test at 45%VO2peak for 45 min followed by 60-min recovery. Appetite sensations were measured during the exercise test using a Visual Analog Scale. Food preferences (liking and wanting) were assessed using a computer-based paradigm, and this paradigm uses 20 photographic food stimuli varying along two dimensions, fat (high or low) and taste (sweet or nonsweet). An ad libitum test meal was provided after the constant-load exercise test.
Exerciseinduced hunger and desire to eat decreased after HIIT, and the difference between MIIT and HIIT in desire to eat approached significance (p = .07). Exercise-induced liking for high-fat nonsweet food tended to increase after MIIT and decreased after HIIT (p = .09). Fat intake decreased by 16% after HIIT, and increased by 38% after MIIT, with the difference between MIIT and HIIT approaching significance (p = .07).
This study provides evidence that energy intake compensation differs between MIIT and HIIT.
James G. Wrightson, Emma Z. Ross and Nicholas J. Smeeton
In a number of studies in which a dual-task gait paradigm was used, researchers reported a relationship between cognitive function and gait. However, it is not clear to what extent these effects are dependent on the type of cognitive and walking tasks used in the dual-task paradigm. This study examined whether stride-time variability (STV) and trunk range of motion (RoM) are affected by the type of cognitive task and walking speed used during dual-task gait. Participants walked at both their preferred walking speed and at 25% of their preferred walking speed and performed a serial subtraction and a working memory task at both speeds. Although both tasks significantly reduced STV at both walking speeds, there was no difference between the two tasks. Trunk RoM was affected by the walking speed and type of cognitive task used during dual-task gait: Mediolateral trunk RoM was increased at the slow walking speed, and anterior-posterior trunk RoM was higher only when performing the serial subtraction task at the slow walking speed. The reduction of STV, regardless of cognitive-task type, suggests that healthy adults may redirect cognitive processes away from gait toward cognitive-task performance during dual-task gait.
Julio Tous-Fajardo, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, José Luis Arjol-Serrano and Per Tesch
To examine the effects of a novel isoinertial eccentric-overload and vibration training (EVT) paradigm on change-ofdirection (COD) speed and multiple performance tests applicable to soccer.
Twenty-four young male players were assigned to an EVT (n = 12) or conventional combined (CONV, n = 12) group, once weekly for 11 wk. EVT consisted of 2 sets of 6–10 repetitions in 5 specific and 3 complementary exercises. CONV used comparable volume (2 sets of 6–10 reps in 3 sequences of 3 exercises) of conventional combined weight, plyometric, and linear speed exercises. Pre- and postintervention tests included 25-m sprint with 4 × 45° COD every 5th m (V-cut test), 10- and 30-m sprints, repeat-sprint ability, countermovement jump, and hopping (RJ5).
Group comparison showed very likely to likely better performance for EVT in the COD (effect size [ES] = 1.42), 30-m (ES = 0.98), 10-m (ES = 1.17), and average power (ES = 0.69) and jump height (ES = 0.69) during RJ5. There was a large (r = –.55) relationship between the increase in average hopping power and the reduced V-cut time.
As EVT, not CONV, improved not only COD ability but also linear speed and reactive jumping, this “proof-of-principle” study suggests that this novel exercise paradigm performed once weekly could serve as a viable adjunct to improve performance tasks specific to soccer.
Two sport psychologies have emerged—academic sport psychology and practicing sport psychology—which presently are on diverging courses because of an unjustified belief in orthodox science as the primary source of knowledge. To support this contention, the basic assumptions of orthodox science are examined, with the doctrine of objectivity singled out as fallacious and especially harmful in that it attempts to remove the person from the process of knowing. Polanyi’s (1958) heuristic philosophy of knowledge, which places humans in the center of the process of knowing, is recommended as an alternative approach for the study of human behavior. This alternative approach reveals the inadequacy of the laboratory experiment which has been invented primarily to pursue the doctrine of objectivity. Next, the Degrees of Knowledge theory is proposed as an alternative way to view the reliability of knowledge. This view, within the heuristic paradigm, places great significance on experiential knowledge. Recommendations for an improved science of human behavior emphasizes the idiographic approach, introspective methods, and field studies. Also, recommendations are made for a more progressive approach to applied research, and the significance of knowledge synthesis from applied research. The two sport psychologies will converge when orthodox science and the doctrine of objectivity are replaced with the heuristic paradigm and its emphasis on experiential knowledge.
Mary Jo Kane and Heather D. Maxwell
In 2005, the Journal of Sport Management printed Wendy Frisby’s Earle F. Zeigler Lecture. The main thrust of Frisby’s presentation was that critical social science is an underutilized framework for conducting research in sport management and that, as a result, we remain limited in our abilities to truly understand how institutions and organizations “are best viewed as operating in a wider cultural, economic, and political context characterized by asymmetrical power relations that are historically entrenched” (2005, p.1). Other scholars such as Cunningham and Fink (2006) reinforced the importance of doing this kind of critical work. In their review of key research findings in sport management literature related to issues of diversity they concluded that the vast majority of studies “operated from the paradigm of positivism” and thus our field “could benefit from an incorporation of different investigative paradigms” (p. 458). Finally, Shaw and Frisby (2006) called for an embrace of critical theoretical frameworks which empirically address the complexities of, for example, gender relations and (in)equalities found throughout the vast sport enterprise.