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Andrew J. Carnes and Sara E. Mahoney

group cohesion—that is, common unity and a tendency to “stick together”—and adherence behavior. Should CFE provide a sense of cohesion, it may help recreational runners “stick” to planned training. Existing data also suggest a negative association between cohesion and perceived effort, 31 potentially

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Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

time ( p  < .001) but not trial ( p  = .531), was observed for RPE, with greater perceived effort at 120 min ( p  < .05) and 135–180 min ( p  < .01) compared with 15 min in both trials. There was no significant difference between trials for TTE performance (CES-HGel 744 ± 182 s and CES-Std 756 ± 187 s

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Thomas Reeve, Ralph Gordon, Paul B. Laursen, Jason K.W. Lee and Christopher J. Tyler

, greater electrolyte reabsorption facilitated by increases in aldosterone) and perceptual adaptations (eg, lower perceived effort and thermal comfort). 3 , 4 The extent to which these adaptations to heat occur depends on the magnitude of the thermal impulse, which in turn depends on the intensity

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Alexander S.D. Gamble, Jessica L. Bigg, Tyler F. Vermeulen, Stephanie M. Boville, Greg S. Eskedjian, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Jamie Whitfield, Matthew S. Palmer and Lawrence L. Spriet

of Sports Sciences, 31 ( 1 ), 1 – 10 . PubMed ID: 22950541 doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.720701 10.1080/02640414.2012.720701 Palmer , M.S. , Heigenhauser , G. , Duong , M. , & Spriet , L.L. ( 2017 ). Ingesting a sports drink enhances simulated ice hockey performance while reducing perceived

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Devin G. McCarthy, Kate A. Wickham, Tyler F. Vermeulen, Danielle L. Nyman, Shane Ferth, Jamie M. Pereira, Dennis J. Larson, Jamie F. Burr and Lawrence L. Spriet

-0333 16. Palmer MS , Heigenhauser G , Duong M , Spriet LL . Ingesting a sports drink enhances simulated ice hockey performance while reducing perceived effort . Int J Sports Med . 2017 ; 38 : 1061 – 1069 . PubMed ID: 29045995 doi:10.1055/s-0043-119874 29045995 10.1055/s-0043-119874 17. Borg

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John J. Fraser and Jay Hertel

pretreatment to posttreatment in 2 of the 3 IFM exercises. Delignières and Brisswalter 35 described a disparity between perceived effort and physical performance. They postulate that perceived difficulty is more determined by a participant’s personality, self-esteem, self-confidence, and aspiration rather

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Denver M.Y. Brown and Steven R. Bray

. Physiological alterations in response to mental fatigue may lead to increased ratings of perceived effort and declines in physical performance. Yet, few studies have assessed physiological changes that occur when people engage in self-control when they are fatigued ( Segerstrom, Smith, & Eisenlohr-Moul, 2011

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Grant E. Norte, Jay N. Hertel, Susan A. Saliba, David R. Diduch and Joseph M. Hart

%, and 75% perceived effort) were performed prior to recording 3 maximal effort trials with 60 seconds of rest between trials. A supramaximal percutaneous electrical stimulus was delivered to the quadriceps using the superimposed technique 25 during the third MVIC. Once the MVIC torque had reached a

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Alex Knowles, Tristan L. Wallhead and Tucker Readdy

recess participation. Questions from the physical education context related to how the teaching approach satisfied their three basic psychological needs and the affective outcomes of their participation in physical education (enjoyment and perceived effort). An example inquiry for relatedness

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Taha Ibrahim Yildiz, Elif Turgut and Irem Duzgun

levels (yellow, red, green, blue, black, silver, and gold) of elastic bands (Thera-Band; The Hygenic Corporation, Akron, OH). Participants performed 3 repetitions with each elastic colored band, starting with the lowest resistance band, and designated their perceived effort out of 10 points on the Borg