This study describes how a physical education teacher collaborated with a second-grade teacher to plan and implement an interdisciplinary unit, and it identifies factors that contributed to the teachers’ actual collaboration. One accomplished elementary physical education teacher, one experienced second-grade classroom teacher, and 35 students from two second-grade classes voluntarily participated in this study. The data were collected by audiotaping the two planning sessions, videotaping eight integrated lessons taught by the physical education teacher and three integrated lessons taught by the classroom teacher, transcribing the taped lessons, and interviewing the teachers. The findings indicated that the teachers’ collaborative planning focused on providing students with integrated and relevant learning experiences. Throughout the collaboration, the two teachers shared leadership roles and teaching responsibilities. The teachers attributed their effective interdisciplinary teaching to their long-term collaborative working experiences, common teaching philosophy, and mutual respect and trust.
Weiyun Chen, Theresa Purcell Cone and Stephen L. Cone
Inez Rovegno and Dianna Bandhauer
This case study tells the story of an in-service elementary physical education teacher, who made a large-scale change from an activities approach to a movement approach based, initially, on “Every Child a Winner” (Rockett & Owens, 1977). Five psychological dispositions facilitated the development of the teacher’s knowledge: (a) the disposition to understand the approach accurately and deeply and to do the job right, (b) the disposition to accept that the approach was difficult to learn and to persist in seeking clarification, (c) the disposition to justify and develop a practice in keeping with a sound educational philosophy and theoretical foundations, (d) the disposition toward change and to learn and implement new ideas, and (e) the disposition to suspend judgment of new ideas. Dispositions can be important aspects of teacher thinking and can help to explain successful knowledge development and teacher change.
This article describes the features and characteristics of a 3-year involvement of SportPsych consulting in professional hockey from 1987 to 1990. Primarily discussion revolves around a 2-year development program with the Chicago Blackhawks. The components of an educational interdisciplinary philosophy of mental skills development and application are outlined and some of the challenges involved in professional team sport are discussed. The range of services described includes involvement in training camp, game preparation, individual development, subgroup work, team meetings, staff development, family support, minor pro development, playoffs, off-season programming, and scouting. The importance of a primary responsibility to players is pointed out, along with some of the advantages and disadvantages of a part-time role. Discussion covers some of the challenges faced and the potential effectiveness of various interventions and services.
Antonio Solana-Sánchez, Sergio Lara-Bercial and David Solana-Sánchez
Professional youth football (soccer) academies face a number of challenges related to the contrasting and at times competing nature of their goals. Marrying long-term development of players with success in youth competitions and combining the development of young people as athletes with their growth as human beings are some examples. Professional football clubs and those tasked with leading their academies have to make key decisions as to how these challenges will be addressed. In this paper we argue that those decisions must be made based on a clearly shared philosophy and accompanying set of values. We present some of the key principles governing the work of the Sevilla Club de Fútbol Youth Academy and the rationale behind them. These principles span from developmental, methodological and pedagogical choices to the building of an internal long-term approach to coach development.
This article describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a mental skills training program for a professional cricket team. Formally initiated in 1987, the educational philosophy and style of operation of this program has evolved to accommodate three other younger representative teams—students from a local cricket academy—in addition to the unique requirements of senior professionals in the state team. A mental skills workbook represents a key resource to the professional team in a service that remains strictly optional. A model of elite cricketer development is presented, and six key mental skill areas are described together with four groups of recurring problems. Good one-on-one skills, a flexible nonacademic style, and good observational abilities have helped to facilitate effective consulting. In addition, regular evaluation by athletes and an excellent working relationship with an enlightened coach has been critical to both program design and implementation.
Frank M. Brasile
It is understood that when an individual takes a stand on an issue that may be controversial, this position is open to criticism. Some may find it necessary to vehemently reject this individual’s philosophy. As such, Thiboutot, Labanowich, and Smith (1992) have been extended the opportunity to express their opinions relative to an article titled “Wheelchair Sports: A New Perspective on Integration” (Brasile, 1990a). The editors of the Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly should be commended for extending the opportunity for these individuals to respond to this issue. They should also be commended for extending the courtesy to write a rejoinder to the diatribe. What follows, therefore, is a rejoinder that will focus on the major issues that Thiboutot et al. have so eloquently raised: the rehabilitative aspects of sport, sport and skill, freedom of choice, and the inclusion of individuals without permanent physical disabilities into the sport of wheelchair basketball.
Dwight H. Zakus
Many IOC actions have led to results that could be described as tragedy and farce. By comparing the presidency of Pierre de Coubertin with that of Avery Brundage, and comparing the decisions made in the denial of Jim Thorpe’s victories with the suspension of Karl Schranz, it is possible to see examples of tragedy and farce in the history of the Olympic movement. Further, it becomes possible to see how some of these actions and decisions have become hypocritical. The notion of hypocrisy is contained in Hoberman’s idea of “amoral universalism.” Several times the IOC has had to reverse its decisions regarding athletes. These decisions have resulted from hypocritical actions of the IOC in its attempt to maintain its version of Olympism as the guiding philosophy of the Olympic movement. The recent events surrounding Ben Johnson exemplify how the “amoral universalism,” and consequently the hypocrisy inherent in the Olympic movement, continue to affect the direct producers of Olympic performances.
This paper deals with the evolution of the concept of sport and the changing sport participation patterns in Europe. The concept of sport has evolved under the influence of the “Sports for All” philosophy. The entire Sports for All campaign has helped open up the definition of sport. Its borders have been shifted, both for participants and scientists. There are now more sports than ever, and more physical activities are considered sports. Sport participation is a result of a complex set of factors: facilities and organizations, patterns of sport socialization, personal motivations, and also the current changes taking place in society. In this discussion, special attention is paid to the relationship between sport socialization and sport participation patterns.
Robert J. Rotella and Mi Mi Murray
Homophobia has been an issue of concern in the world of sport for decades. It has had a negative impact on the world of athletes, coaches, and sport psychology consultants. Both heterosexuals and homosexuals are affected. Homophobia has kept some from striving for excellence while interfering with and hindering some who pursued success in sport. Specialists in sport psychology who claim to care about the development of human potential in sport must be concerned about the impact of homophobia. An honest look at attitudes, beliefs, and values is a necessary step forward if change is to occur. A move in the direction of healthy acceptance of differing sexual preferences is suggested, along with an effective philosophy for doing so. A wish list for the future is included.
Jacquelyn Cuneen and Janet B. Parks
In the September, 1995 issue of the Journal of Sport Management, W. James Weese suggested that NASSM should develop a more practical focus and philosophy in order to better serve sport management practitioners. He made several recommendations regarding future directions for NASSM and the Journal of Sport Management (JSM) designed to pursue that goal. We respectfully challenge Weese's position, arguing that the primary goal of NASSM and JSM should be to support and fortify the scholarship produced by the sport management professoriate, with the concomitant goal of having an impact on the way sport is managed. We suggest that NASSM and JSM have naturally evolved to protect and enhance sport management education. In the process, they have become eminent providers of continuing education and currently useful research to the sport management professoriate, student-scholars, and practitioners who seek a symbiotic relationship with the academy.