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Clementine Grandou, Lee Wallace, Aaron J. Coutts, Lee Bell and Franco M. Impellizzeri

overtraining from those of normal fatigue that may result from high intensity and/or volume training sessions that are necessary to promote physiological adaptations. Although the decline in performance associated with overtraining appears to be accompanied by symptoms of generalized fatigue, the presence of

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Phillip Bellinger, Blayne Arnold and Clare Minahan

, and zone 3 >LT2/VT2). There is strong evidence from experimental studies 3 – 5 , 13 suggesting that the TID adopted by an athlete greatly affects the resultant performance and physiological adaptations. Furthermore, elite athletes aim to periodize their TID throughout different training phases within

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Jan-Michael Johansen, Sondre Eriksen, Arnstein Sunde, Øystein B. Slettemeås, Jan Helgerud and Øyvind Støren

, MacDonald R , Hoff J . Physiological adaptations to soccer specific endurance training in professional youth soccer players . Br J Sports Med . 2005 ; 39 ( 5 ): 273 – 277 . PubMed ID: 15849290 doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.012526 15849290 25. Vandbakk K , Welde B , Kruken AH , et al . Effects

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Thaís Reichert, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Bruna Machado Barroso, Vitória de Mello Bones da Rocha, Henrique Bianchi Oliveira, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Anemarí Girardon de Azevedo and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

physiological adaptations and glycemic control in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes . Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 15 ( 2 ), 64 – 70 . Pendergast , D.R. , Moon , R.E. , Krasney , J.J. , Held , H.E. , & Zamparo , P. ( 2015 ). Human physiology in an aquatic environment

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Alex S. Ribeiro, Matheus A. Nascimento, Brad J. Schoenfeld, João Pedro Nunes, Andreo F. Aguiar, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha, Steven J. Fleck and Edilson S. Cyrino

as the number of exercise sessions performed in a given period of time, generally a week ( Ratamess et al., 2009 ; Schoenfeld, 2010 ). The frequency of a RT program has a notable effect on physiological adaptations due to RT performance with several studies showing a dose–response relationship

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Rachel Lohman, Amelia Carr and Dominique Condo

, energy intake, and physiological adaptations during a rugby preseason: A case study from an elite European Rugby Union Squad . Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29 ( 2 ), 534 – 544 . doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000631 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000631 Bradley , W. , Cavanagh , B. , Douglas

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Emerson Franchini

applications . Sports Med . 2013 ; 43 ( 10 ): 927 – 954 . PubMed ID: 23832851 doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0066-5 10.1007/s40279-013-0066-5 23832851 18. Franchini E , Cormack S , Takito MY . Effects of high-intensity interval training on Olympic combat sports athletes’ performance and physiological

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Ui-Jae Hwang, Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-A Kim, Jun-Hee Kim and Oh-Yun Kwon

fitness fields. 27 , 34 Of the 2 types of contractions, ST induces more pronounced neuromuscular adaptation than EMS training alone. 20 However, EMS and VC together could lead to greater physiological adaptation than either contraction type alone. Our results indicate that 8 weeks of ST training of the

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Paulo Sugihara Junior, Alex S. Ribeiro, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Paolo M. Cunha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Brad J. Schoenfeld and Edilson S. Cyrino

Journal of Nutrition, 132 ( 10 ), 3228S – 3233S . PubMed ID: 12368423 doi:10.1093/jn/131.10.3228S 10.1093/jn/131.10.3228S Deschenes , M.R. , & Kraemer , W.J. ( 2002 ). Performance and physiologic adaptations to resistance training . American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 81

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Rebecca Quinlan and Jessica A. Hill

antioxidant supplementation on physiological adaptation during intensified physical training . Sports Med . 2015 ; 45 : 453 – 471 . PubMed ID: 25398224 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0282-7 10.1007/s40279-014-0282-7 25398224 2. Cleak MJ , Easton RG . Muscle soreness, swelling, stiffness and strength loss