We used cognitive developmental theory to examine teachers’ perspectives on the use of pedometers in physical education. Twenty-six elementary physical education teachers participating in long-term professional development were observed and interviewed twice over 6 months as they learned to incorporate pedometers into their teaching. Data were analyzed via constant comparison. The teachers reported four significant shifts in their thinking and values regarding pedometers. First, at the beginning, the teachers predicted they would encounter few implementation challenges that they would not be able to overcome, but, after prolonged use, they voiced several limitations to implementing pedometers in physical education. Second, they anticipated that pedometers would motivate primarily higher skilled students, but found that lesser skilled students connected with them more. Third, they moved from thinking they could use pedometers to teach almost any content to explaining four areas of content that pedometers are best suited to assist in teaching. Last, they shifted from seeing pedometers as potential accountability tools for student learning and their teaching to identifying key limitations to using pedometers for assessment. Our discussion centers on connecting these findings to teacher learning and professional development, and on the implications for teacher educators and professional development specialists advocating pedometers in physical education.
Nate McCaughtry, Kimberly L. Oliver, Suzanna Rocco Dillon and Jeffrey J. Martin
The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze mentoring and networking among selected male and female administrators employed by National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. A random sample of 263 NCAA administrators (106 males, 157 females) participated in the study. Data were collected through a mail questionnaire and a follow-up interview, both developed by the researcher. Results indicate that NCAA administrators have mentoring relationships and participate actively in networking. The mentoring relationships and the networking utilized by these administrators included both formal and informal involvement. The results indicate that NCAA administrators perceive that having a mentor and actively networking assists in an individual’s personal and professional development.
Eric A. Zillmer and Rebecca Weidensaul Gigli
Over the last two decades, there has been an increase in participation in intercollegiate sports with over 380,000 student-athletes participating in nearly 100 athletic conferences at 1,100 NCAA membership schools. Simultaneously, the professional development in the field of sport psychology has paralleled the public draw of competitive sports. This paper explores, from the university athletics departmental perspective, the opportunities as well as the challenges that clinical sport psychologists may encounter within this interesting and stimulating field. The sport psychologist’s training and expertise uniquely prepares him or her to play an important and rewarding role in the lives of coaches, student-athletes and all those who support them.
Richard I. Tinning
Student teaching as a significant part of the professional development of physical education teachers is implicated in the general failure of teacher education to adequately prepare teachers who can envision a world of schooling that is any different from the present one. This paper argues that the dominant pedagogy of student teaching is inherently conservative, is characterized by technical rationality, and embraces an outmoded view of professional knowledge. The adoption of a critical-inquiry perspective in student teaching is offered as a possible alternative.
Wade Gilbert, Ronald Gallimore and Pierre Trudel
Repeated calls have been made by prominent sport and education associations for the creation of ongoing professional development networks and learning communities for youth sport coaches. The purpose of this paper is to propose a learning community approach to coach development that complements large-scale coach education programs. This concept paper is organized into three sections followed by a brief summary. The three sections are: (a) overview of the effectiveness of community-based learning research on teacher development, (b) overview of how community-based learning literature has informed coach development initiatives, and (c) suggestions for how a learning community approach could be practically implemented in a typical youth sport setting.
Jaime R. DeLuca and Jessica Braunstein-Minkove
Experiential learning has become a driving force of universities around the world, and is a crucial part of many sport management programs. This is particularly true given the competitive nature of the field and the rapid changes the industry continuously faces. This work seeks to reexamine the sport management curricula to ensure a progression and evolution toward a superior level of student preparedness for their internship experiences. Through the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods, our major findings recommend a focus on academic, experiential, and professional development. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed along with limitations and directions for further investigation.
Stephanie M. Mazerolle and Chantel Hunter
Professional commitment has been studied in multiple settings, yet little is known about the professional sport setting. A total of 27 male athletic trainers, employed full time in the professional sport setting, participated in this study. Our participants were 34 years old (range 30–58), with 21 ± 7 years of experience as a certified athletic trainer, and more than 17 ± 7 years of experience in the professional setting. We conducted online asynchronous interviews. All data were analyzed following an interpretative approach. Data saturation was met, and we used a peer review and researcher triangulation. Barriers to professional commitment included time away from family/home and negative work environment. The facilitators to professional commitment were competition, positive work environment, and off-season professional development. The professional sport setting is unique, much like the collegiate setting, and thus our findings highlight that time away and a negative workplace atmosphere can reduce an athletic trainer’s commitment. Commitment to the profession, however, is enhanced within this setting because of the chance to be around the high level of competition, as well as the chance to have time for professional development.
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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, William A. Pitney and Ashley Goodman
Edited by Jatin Ambegaonkar
Retention factors for athletic trainers (ATs) generally include autonomy, work-life balance, and job satisfaction, but little is known specifically about the position of Head AT.
To investigate factors that influence retention of the Head AT in a leadership role.
A qualitative study that employed structured interviews.
Patients or Other Participants:
18 Head ATs (13 males, 5 females; 44 ± 8 years of age; 22 ± 7 years of experience in the role) participated.
Data Collection and Analysis:
Participants responded to a series of questions presented through an online interview. The data were analyzed through a general inductive approach.
Two key retention factors that were identified by the analysis were enjoyment of the work setting and professional motivation.
Head ATs remain in their positions due to rewarding relationships with staff members and student-athletes. A commitment to lifelong learning for professional development also exerts a positive influence for retention.
Tom Sharpe, Monica Fabian Lounsbery, Cindy Golden and Chris Deibler
Collaboration among teacher educators and practicing teachers is currently a popular education reform strategy. Two matched undergraduate cohorts, one prepared in a Professional Development School (PDS) collaborative, were followed over a 5-year period to determine the benefits of one collaborative model. Qualitative data were collected across the 2 undergraduate groups (n = 8, n = 6), two cooperating teacher groups (n = 16, n = 12), two public school administrative groups (n = 4, n = 3), and one faculty group (graduate student n = 3, faculty n = 3). Observational data were also collected for each undergraduate cohort, representing practicum, student teaching, and inservice teaching. Qualitative data over the 5-year study period showed trends from apprehension to receptivity and recommitment to the teacher education process for all collaborative participants. While not directly attributable to the collaboration model alone, exposed undergraduates and their students also demonstrated marked changes in select daily practices correlated with effective instruction. Challenges and implications for research on collaborative activities are last discussed.