Experiential learning has become a driving force of universities around the world, and is a crucial part of many sport management programs. This is particularly true given the competitive nature of the field and the rapid changes the industry continuously faces. This work seeks to reexamine the sport management curricula to ensure a progression and evolution toward a superior level of student preparedness for their internship experiences. Through the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods, our major findings recommend a focus on academic, experiential, and professional development. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed along with limitations and directions for further investigation.
Jaime R. DeLuca and Jessica Braunstein-Minkove
Allen W. Burton
Adapted physical education specialists must design and carry out programs for students with movement coordination problems, but intervention strategies for such students are rarely included in adapted physical education textbooks. In response to the lack of information available to practitioners, the purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework for better understanding movement coordination, to briefly review some of the methods used by both researchers and practitioners to assess coordination, and to present some possible strategies for addressing movement coordination deficits. Two types of coordination solutions are discussed—neuromotor and mechanical—and specific activity progressions are given for jumping jacks and overhand throwing.
Paul R. Surburg
Problems encountered by researchers conducting motor learning studies with special populations are the central focus of this paper. The sequence of topical coverage follows a progression that would be encountered by researchers as they develop and conduct research studies. For each problem or issue identified, a suggestion is provided to help researchers cope with these problems. The following topics are examined: development of an appropriate problem, selection of a handicapping condition, determination of dependent variables, utilization of correct experimental protocols, evaluation of project design, and assessment of data.
Douglas R. Keskula
Returning an athlete to functional activity is the primary goal of the sports medicine practitioner. Eccentric exercise may be used throughout the rehabilitation program to improve muscle performance and restore normal function. The selection and progression of eccentric exercise are contingent on treatment goals and the individual's tolerance to activity. Basic concepts of eccentric muscle performance are discussed, and general treatment guidelines with an emphasis on specificity and intensity are presented, to enable the clinician to organize and implement relevant, prudent eccentric exercise within the restrictions of the clinical setting. The use of eccentric exercise in the management of tendinitis is briefly discussed.
Kelly L. Adler, P. Christopher Cook and Brian D. Giordano
Injury to the rectus femoris (RF) myotendinous complex is the most common location of quadriceps injury, due to combined loads of stretch and eccentric muscular activation. To our knowledge, open proximal RF repair has been reported, but a thorough description of postoperative rehabilitation and functional progression of athletic activity has not been described. This case report outlines the rehabilitation of a 30-year-old female following open proximal RF repair after 15 months of failed conservative treatment. Six months postoperatively she returned to competitive recreational soccer with no complaints.
Stephen P. Sayers
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a disease affecting muscle fiber integrity in boys that leads to progressive weakness in skeletal muscle and premature death. Currently, there is no known cure for the disease. Different interventions have been explored to delay the progression of the disease and improve the quality of life for the DMD patient. Physical activity is one treatment that has generated controversy due to the increased mechanical stress placed on the muscle during contraction. This review explores the literature in animal models and human DMD patients and evaluates the known theoretical risks and benefits of increased physical activity in DMD patients.
Kelly S. Witte
The main purpose of this article is to present a student-centered learning approach for developing a working coaching philosophy. The strategy provided is appropriate for coaching educators to use with students as well as practicing coaches to reflect on their own development through personal experience and practice. It stems from the constructivist approach to learning and guides the reader or student through an active process of recollection, reflection, and critical thinking. During this progression, a personal construct of understanding is created from impact moments that have occurred to-date involving their sport and/or coaching experiences which shape their own philosophy.
Lara Grobler, Suzanne Ferreira and Elmarie Terblanche
The Paralympic Games have undergone many changes since their inception in 1960, one being the advances made in running-specific prostheses (RSPs) for track athletes with lower-limb amputations.
To investigate the sprinting-performance changes in athletes with lower-limb amputations since 1992 to assess whether the influence of developments in RSP technology is evident.
The results of the Olympic and Paralympic Games ranging between 1992 and 2012 for the 100-m and 200-m were collected, and performance trends, percentage change in performance, and competition density (CD) were calculated.
The results indicate that the greatest performance increases were seen in athletes with lower-limb amputations (T42 = 26%, T44 = 14%). These performance improvements were greater than for Olympic athletes (<3%), as well as Paralympic athletes from other selected classes (<10%). The T42 and T44 classes also showed the lowest CD values.
These results suggest that although there is an overall trend for improved Paralympic sprint performances, RSP technology has played a noteworthy role in the progression of performances of athletes with amputations. It is also hypothesized that the difference in the performance improvements between the T42 and T44 classes is due to the level of disability and therefore the extent to which technology is required to enable locomotion.
It is evident that RSP technology has played a significant role in the progression of performances in athletes with lower-limb amputations.
Tishya A.L. Wren and Paul C. Mitiguy
Clinical gait analysis usually describes joint kinematics using Euler angles, which depend on the sequence of rotation. Studies have shown that pelvic obliquity angles from the traditional tilt-obliquity-rotation (TOR) Euler angle sequence can deviate considerably from clinical expectations and have suggested that a rotation-obliquity-tilt (ROT) Euler angle sequence be used instead. We propose a simple alternate approach in which clinical joint angles are defined and exactly calculated in terms of Euler angles from any rotation sequence. Equations were derived to calculate clinical pelvic elevation, progression, and lean angles from TOR and ROT Euler angles. For the ROT Euler angles, obliquity was exactly the same as the clinical elevation angle, rotation was similar to the clinical progression angle, and tilt was similar to the clinical lean angle. Greater differences were observed for TOR. These results support previous findings that ROT is preferable to TOR for calculating pelvic Euler angles for clinical interpretation. However, we suggest that exact clinical angles can and should be obtained through a few extra calculations as demonstrated in this technical note.
Stephanie A. Stadden
Through the progression of athletic training education, there has been an increased emphasis on psychosocial aspects related to the field as is evident in the 2011 Athletic Training Education Competencies. The ability to effectively communicate has been identified as an important characteristic for athletic trainers in providing quality care to patients (Raab, Wolfe, Gould, Piland, 2011). Athletic trainers must be able to communicate effectively not only with patients, but also physicians, parents, coaches, and peers. Although research examining effective communication in athletic training is limited, the session will examine existing research performed addressing communication in athletic training and other healthcare professions, such as medicine and nursing. In addition, the session will discuss research linking the athletic trainer-patient relationship and injury reporting tendencies along with practical application of the research to assist the athletic trainer in further development of their professional relationships.