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Lauren A. Gardner, Christopher A. Magee and Stewart A. Vella

level or to be with friends) and would therefore be incorrectly classed as having dropped out of the sport completely. Thus, few prospective studies have been conducted, and most studies have been retrospective or have used proxy measures of dropout based on commonly identified reasons for withdrawal. 3

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Matt Greig, Hannah Emmerson and John McCreadie

of the game . J Sport Health Sci . 2014 ; 3 ( 4 ): 258 – 272 . doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2014.10.001 10.1016/j.jshs.2014.10.001 9. Faude O , Junge A , Kindermann W , Dvorak J . Injuries in female soccer players: a prospective study in the German national league . Am J Sports Med . 2005 ; 33

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Robert Rodriguez

the physical requirements of each sport can help one appreciate the importance of maintaining a high adductor to abductor strength ratio. In a recent prospective study involving 110 athletes in various sports, Serner et al 9 found that kicking was the most common mechanism for acute groin injuries in

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Yasuhiko Kubota, Alvaro Alonso, Amil M. Shah, Lin Y. Chen and Aaron R. Folsom

sleeping, 9 and thus a study of TV watching and AF may be informative for future public health recommendations. Therefore, we tested, in a prospective study, the hypothesis that the frequency of TV watching is positively associated with incident AF, independent of other AF risk factors, including physical

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Hardeep Singh, Mark Lee, Matthew J. Solomito, Christian Merrill and Carl Nissen

, suggests that the “total time” spent in a sport with lumbar extension may be a viable proxy for the product of duration and frequency of lumbar extension. A prospective study of 82 young, male cricket fast bowlers over 1 year demonstrated the development of computed tomography-verified spondylolysis in 11

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Joowon Lee, Baojiang Chen, Harold W. Kohl III, Carolyn E. Barlow, Chong Do Lee, Nina B. Radford, Laura F. DeFina and Kelley P. Gabriel

, large prospective studies and pooled population cohort analyses have not consistently demonstrated an inverse association between MSA and coronary heart disease events, stroke events, combined CVD endpoints, or CVD mortality in fully adjusted models ( Bennie et al., 2018 ; Kraschnewski et al., 2016

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Baruch Vainshelboim, Zhongming Chen, Ricardo M. Lima and Jonathan Myers

. Future prospective studies should address the role of promoting CRF for primary and secondary prevention of cancer among smokers and nonsmokers. Acknowledgments No funding was received. All authors declare there is no conflict of interest. References 1. World Health Organization . World Cancer Report

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Lennart Raudsepp and Kristi Vink

understood and no clear conclusion could be drawn from previous prospective studies. 18 – 20 For example, Liu et al 21 conducted a meta-analysis of 16 studies (n = 127,714 children and adolescents) and found that those with more daily sedentary time (compared with the reference groups), had 12.3% increase

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Lukas D. Linde, Jessica Archibald, Eve C. Lampert and John Z. Srbely

better understand the mechanism of ACL injury with an aim toward improving ACL injury prevention in females. Gender differences in lower limb mechanics have been shown to predispose females to ACL injury. 3 , 4 A large prospective study, in which female basketball and soccer athletes were followed for 2

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Lennart Raudsepp and Eva-Maria Riso

activity based on prospective studies yielded equivocal results ( Roshanaei-Moghaddam, Katon, & Russo, 2009 ). Some studies have found no prospective link between physical activity and depressive symptoms ( Kritz-Silverstein, Barrett-Connor, & Corbeau, 2001 ; Perrino, Mason, Brown, & Szapocznik, 2010