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Lauren A. Gardner, Christopher A. Magee and Stewart A. Vella

level or to be with friends) and would therefore be incorrectly classed as having dropped out of the sport completely. Thus, few prospective studies have been conducted, and most studies have been retrospective or have used proxy measures of dropout based on commonly identified reasons for withdrawal. 3

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Matt Greig, Hannah Emmerson and John McCreadie

of the game . J Sport Health Sci . 2014 ; 3 ( 4 ): 258 – 272 . doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2014.10.001 10.1016/j.jshs.2014.10.001 9. Faude O , Junge A , Kindermann W , Dvorak J . Injuries in female soccer players: a prospective study in the German national league . Am J Sports Med . 2005 ; 33

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Robert Rodriguez

the physical requirements of each sport can help one appreciate the importance of maintaining a high adductor to abductor strength ratio. In a recent prospective study involving 110 athletes in various sports, Serner et al 9 found that kicking was the most common mechanism for acute groin injuries in

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Yasuhiko Kubota, Alvaro Alonso, Amil M. Shah, Lin Y. Chen and Aaron R. Folsom

sleeping, 9 and thus a study of TV watching and AF may be informative for future public health recommendations. Therefore, we tested, in a prospective study, the hypothesis that the frequency of TV watching is positively associated with incident AF, independent of other AF risk factors, including physical

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Hardeep Singh, Mark Lee, Matthew J. Solomito, Christian Merrill and Carl Nissen

, suggests that the “total time” spent in a sport with lumbar extension may be a viable proxy for the product of duration and frequency of lumbar extension. A prospective study of 82 young, male cricket fast bowlers over 1 year demonstrated the development of computed tomography-verified spondylolysis in 11

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Joowon Lee, Baojiang Chen, Harold W. Kohl III, Carolyn E. Barlow, Chong Do Lee, Nina B. Radford, Laura F. DeFina and Kelley P. Gabriel

, large prospective studies and pooled population cohort analyses have not consistently demonstrated an inverse association between MSA and coronary heart disease events, stroke events, combined CVD endpoints, or CVD mortality in fully adjusted models ( Bennie et al., 2018 ; Kraschnewski et al., 2016

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Lennart Raudsepp and Eva-Maria Riso

activity based on prospective studies yielded equivocal results ( Roshanaei-Moghaddam, Katon, & Russo, 2009 ). Some studies have found no prospective link between physical activity and depressive symptoms ( Kritz-Silverstein, Barrett-Connor, & Corbeau, 2001 ; Perrino, Mason, Brown, & Szapocznik, 2010

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Yoav Gimmon, Hisham Rashad, Ilan Kurz, Meir Plotnik, Raziel Riemer, Ronen Debi, Amir Shapiro and Itshak Melzer

mortality and nursing home admission . Journals of Gerontology, 49 ( 2 ), 85 – 94 . doi:10.1093/geronj/49.2.M85 10.1093/geronj/49.2.M85 Hausdorff , J.M. , Rios , D.A. , & Edelberg , H.K. ( 2001 ). Gait variability and fall risk in community living older adults: A 1-year prospective study

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Erik A. Wikstrom, Cole Mueller and Mary Spencer Cain

, Witvrouw E , Delbaere K , Mahieu N , De Bourdeaudhuij I , De Clercq D . Intrinsic risk factors for inversion ankle sprains in male subjects: a prospective study . Am J Sports Med . 2005 ; 33 ( 3 ): 415 – 423 . PubMed ID: 15716258 doi:10.1177/0363546504268137 15716258 10

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Stacy L. Fritz, Paul F. Beattie, Carl J. Lavie, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch and Steven N. Blair

.1002/art.22979 11. Sieverdes JC , Sui X , Lee DC , et al . Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a prospective study of men . Br J Sports Med . 2010 ; 44 ( 4 ): 238 – 244 . PubMed ID: 19656767 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.062117 10.1136/bjsm.2009