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Gemma V. Espí-López, Pilar Serra-Añó, David Cobo-Pascual, Manuel Zarzoso, Luis Suso-Martí, Ferran Cuenca-Martínez and Marta Inglés

, Martínez-Amat A . Effects of 6 weeks of balance training on chronic ankle instability in athletes: a randomized controlled trial . Int J Sports Med . 2015 ; 36 ( 09 ): 754 – 760 . doi:10.1055/s-0034-1398645 25969966 10.1055/s-0034-1398645 22. Plisky PJ , Gorman PP , Butler RJ , Kiesel KB

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Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen

synthesis rates in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial . Journal of Nutrition, 147 ( 12 ), 2252 – 2261 . PubMed ID: 28855419 doi:10.3945/jn.117.254532 10.3945/jn.117.254532 Levenhagen , D.K. , Carr , C. , Carlson , M.G. , Maron , D.J. , Borel , M.J. , & Flakoll , P.J. ( 2002

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Francini Vilela Novais, Eduardo J. Simoes, Chester Schmaltz and Luiz R. Ramos

in general practice for physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet in elderly: a randomized controlled trial . Arch Gerontol Geriatr . 2014 ; 58 ( 1 ): 160 – 169 . PubMed ID: 24012131 doi:10.1016/j.archger.2013.08.007 10.1016/j.archger.2013.08.007 24012131 40. Grandes G , Sanchez

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Alison Crosbie

Objective

Asthma is a leading cause of chronic illness in children, impacting heavily on their daily life and participation in physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the evidence for the use of physical therapy to improve pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in children with asthma. Furthermore, the review aims to update previous literature on the effect of exercise on health related quality of life.

Methods

A search was conducted for randomized control trials (RCTs) using the electronic databases Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus, AMED, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies were included if the participants were asthmatic children aged 6–18 years participating in any mode of physical exercise. Studies were reviewed for study quality, participant details, exercise intervention details, and intervention outcomes.

Results

A total of 16 studies and 516 subjects met inclusion criteria for review. Severity of asthma ranged from mild to severe. No improvement in pulmonary function was observed. Physical training led to an increase in aerobic capacity as measured by VO2max (mL/kg/min).

Conclusions

Findings suggest that physical training does not improve pulmonary function in children with asthma, but does increase aerobic capacity. The small number of studies investigating quality of life suggests that physical training does improve health related quality of life; however further well designed randomized control trials are needed to verify these findings.

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Katja Linde and Dorothee Alfermann

Background:

Physical and cognitive activity seems to be an effective strategy by which to promote age-sensitive fluid cognitive abilities in older adults.

Method:

In this randomized controlled trial, 70 healthy senior citizens (age 60–75) were allocated to a physical, cognitive, combined physical plus cognitive, and waiting control group. The trial assessed information processing speed, short-term memory, spatial relations, concentration, reasoning, and cognitive speed.

Results:

In contrast to the control group, the physical, cognitive, and combined training groups enhanced their concentration immediately after intervention. Only the physical training group showed improved concentration 3 months later. The combined training group displayed improved cognitive speed both immediately and three months after intervention. The cognitive training group displayed improved cognitive speed 3 months after intervention.

Conclusions:

Physical, cognitive, and combined physical plus cognitive activity can be seen as cognition-enrichment behaviors in healthy older adults that show different rather than equal intervention effects.

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Franciele Cascaes da Silva, Rodrigo da Rosa Iop, Patrícia Domingos dos Santos, Lídia Mara Aguiar Bezerra de Melo, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres Filho and Rudney da Silva

This study aimed to determine the effects of physical-exercise-based rehabilitation programs on quality of life of patients with Parkinson’s disease through a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. For this purpose the following electronic databases were selected: Medline by PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and PEDro. The search strategy included the proposed descriptors in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), associated with a sensitive list of terms to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), without year and language restrictions. Fourteen studies were potentially relevant, and these studies were included. Physical-exercise-based rehabilitation programs realized 2–4 times a week, 60 min each session, for 6–12 weeks, and follow-up of 3 months promotes significant positive effects on quality of life in Parkinson’s disease patients at mild to moderate stages and disease duration around 6 years.

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Leena Hakola, Kai Savonen, Pirjo Komulainen, Maija Hassinen, Rainer Rauramaa and Timo A. Lakka

Background:

Little is known about factors that modify the effectiveness of exercise interventions in increasing exercise. We aimed to identify moderators of the effectiveness of aerobic exercise intervention in maintaining increased aerobic exercise among older individuals.

Methods:

The participants of a 4-year randomized controlled trial were a population sample of 1410 men and women aged 57 to 78 years. The aerobic exercise group included 185 individuals and the control group included 169 individuals who reported low aerobic exercise at baseline. Maintained increase in aerobic exercise was defined as at least 60-minute increase in moderate-to-heavy aerobic exercise per week from baseline to 2- and 4-year assessments.

Results:

Individuals in the aerobic exercise group were 2.5 (95% CI 1.5 to 3.9) times more likely to maintain increased aerobic exercise than those in the control group. Individuals aged < 68.5 years but not older individuals succeeded in maintaining increased aerobic exercise in the intervention group (P = .02 for interaction). Individuals who were past smokers (P = .02 for interaction), were working (P = .05 for interaction), or had symptoms of depression (P = .05 for interaction) succeeded better in maintaining increased aerobic exercise in the intervention group than other individuals.

Conclusions:

These findings help in more precise targeting of future exercise interventions among older individuals.

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Cadeyrn J. Gaskin, Melinda Craike, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Kerry S. Courneya and Patricia M. Livingston

Background:

The ENGAGE (efficacy of a referral and physical activity program for survivors of prostate cancer) study established that a clinician referral and 12-week exercise training program increased vigorous physical activity at 12 weeks among men with prostate cancer. Here, we report the 6- and 12-month outcomes.

Methods:

In this multicenter cluster randomized controlled trial, we compared a clinician referral and exercise training program to usual care. Discounted gym membership was offered to men in the intervention condition on completion of the 12-week exercise program. Self-reported physical activity at 6 and 12 months was the primary outcome. Quality of life, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were secondary outcomes.

Results:

A total of 147 men meeting eligibility criteria agreed to participate (54 intervention, 93 control). A positive interaction effect for vigorous physical activity was observed at 6 months, but not 12 months. No significant effects for the secondary outcomes were found.

Conclusions:

A clinician referral and community-based supervised and unsupervised exercise training program, along with discounted gym membership, had a positive short-term effect on vigorous physical activity levels, but did not improve quality of life, in men with prostate cancer.

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Rosemarie Martin and Elaine Murtagh

Background:

A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Active Classrooms intervention, which integrates movement into academic lessons, on the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels (MVPA) of primary school children during class-time and throughout the school day.

Methods:

Ten classroom teachers and their students aged 8 to 12 years were recruited and randomized into the Active Classrooms intervention group (n = 131students, n = 5teachers) or a delayed-treatment controlled group (n = 117students, n = 5teachers). The intervention group participated in active academic lessons taught by the classroom teacher over an 8 week period. Accelerometers were used to gather physical activity data at baseline, postintervention and at 4 months follow-up. Teachers completed a questionnaire to evaluate the program.

Results:

A significant difference for change in daily class time MVPA levels was identified between the treatment (n = 95) and control (n = 91) groups from pre- to postintervention (P < .001) and this difference was maintained at follow-up (P < .001). No significant difference emerged between the treatment and control groups for change in school day MVPA levels from pre- to postintervention (P = .52) or follow-up (P = .09). Teachers reported that they were highly satisfied with the program.

Conclusions:

Movement integration has the potential to improve physical activity levels of primary school children in the classroom.

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Daniel L. Borges, Mayara Gabrielle Silva, Luan Nascimento Silva, João Vyctor Fortes, Erika Thalita Costa, Rebeca Pessoa Assunção, Carlos Magno Lima, Vinícius José da Silva Nina, Mário Bernardo-Filho and Danúbia Sá Caputo

Background:

Physical activity is beneficial in several clinical situations and recommended for patients with ischemic heart disease, as well as for those undergoing cardiac surgery.

Methods:

In a randomized controlled trial, 34 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A randomized control group (n = 15) submitted to conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group (n = 19) received the same protocol plus additional aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function by spirometry, respiratory muscle strength by manovacuometry, and functional capacity through 6-minute walking test was assessed before surgery and at hospital discharge.

Results:

There was significant reduction in pulmonary function in both groups. In both groups, inspiratory muscle strength was maintained while expiratory muscle strength significantly decreased. Functional capacity was maintained in the intervention group (364.5 [324.5 to 428] vs. 348 [300.7 to 413.7] meters, P = .06), but it decreased significantly in control group patients (320 [288.5 to 393.0] vs. 292 [237.0 to 336.0] meters, P = .01). A significant difference in functional capacity was also found in intergroup analyses at hospital discharge (P = .03).

Conclusion:

Aerobic exercise applied early on coronary artery bypass grafting patients may promote maintenance of functional capacity, with no impact on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength when compared with conventional physiotherapy.