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Louise M. Burke and Inigo Mujika

Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost–benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

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Sebastian Kaufmann, Olaf Hoos, Timo Kuehl, Thomas Tietz, Dominik Reim, Kai Fehske, Richard Latzel and Ralph Beneke

-Yo Intermittent Recovery Tests 1 and 2 (YYIR1 and YYIR2) are well established tests, applied in a variety of team sports, 9 and both have been shown to detect changes in intermittent running performance over certain training periods. 11 YYIR1 and YYIR2 are highly demanding for the aerobic energy system and

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Ben Desbrow, Katelyn Barnes, Caroline Young, Greg R. Cox and Chris Irwin

Immediate postexercise access to fruit/fluid via a recovery “station” is a common feature of mass participation sporting events. Yet little evidence exists examining their impact on subsequent dietary intake. The aim of this study was to determine if access to fruit/water/sports drinks within a recovery station significantly alters dietary and fluid intakes in the immediate postexercise period and influences hydration status the next morning. 127 (79 males) healthy participants (M ± SD, age = 22.5 ± 3.5y, body mass (BM) = 73 ± 13kg) completed two self-paced morning 10km runs separated by 1 week. Immediately following the first run, participants were randomly assigned to enter (or not) the recovery station for 30min. All participants completed the alternate recovery option the following week. Participants recorded BM before and after exercise and measured Urine Specific Gravity (USG) before running and again the following morning. For both trial days, participants also completed 24h food and fluid records via a food diary that included photographs. Paired-sample t tests were used to assess differences in hydration and dietary outcome variables (Recovery vs. No Recovery). No difference in preexercise USG or BM change from exercise were observed between treatments (p’s > .05). Attending the recovery zone resulted in a greater total daily fluid (Recovery = 3.37 ± 1.46L, No Recovery = 3.16 ± 1.32L, p = .009) and fruit intake (Recovery = 2.37 ± 1.76 servings, No Recovery = 1.55 ± 1.61 servings, p > .001), but had no influence on daily total energy (Recovery = 10.15 ± 4.2MJ, No Recovery = 10.15 ± 3.9MJ), or macronutrient intakes (p > .05). Next morning USG values were not different between treatments (Recovery = 1.018 ± 0.007, No Recovery = 1.019 ± 0.009, p > .05). Recovery stations provide an opportunity to modify dietary intake which promote positive lifestyle behaviors in recreational athletes.

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Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle and Molly Curcio

athletes who compete in weight-sensitive sports are at higher risk than those from ballgame sports (e.g.,  Krentz & Warschburger, 2011 ). There are no known studies that report athlete-specific treatment and recovery rate data; however, literature reviews on general ED populations indicate that treatment

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Jacopo A. Vitale, Giuseppe Banfi, Andrea Galbiati, Luigi Ferini-Strambi and Antonio La Torre

It is becoming increasingly evident that sleep plays an essential role for human health, and it represents an important biophysiological variable for athletes’ well-being and recovery. 1 The International Olympic Committee recently highlighted the importance of obtaining sufficient sleep volume

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Sarah Barnes

athlete recovery cannot be insulated from the obvious and growing cultural preoccupation with sleep or a consumer culture that “has come to see the self and the body in its ultimate commodity form—a sign in which one affectively invests” through the logics of lifestyle and health ( Howell & Ingham, 2001

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Yuya Ueda, Takehiko Matsushita, Yohei Shibata, Kohei Takiguchi, Akihiro Kida, Daisuke Araki, Noriyuki Kanzaki, Yuichi Hoshino, Rei Ono, Yoshitada Sakai and Ryosuke Kuroda

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been widely performed to treat patients with ACL injuries, and the overall outcomes were satisfactory in previous reports. 1 Although most patients regain knee stability and functional recovery after ACL reconstruction, 2 , 3 quadriceps strength

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Laís Monteiro Rodrigues Loureiro, Caio Eduardo Gonçalves Reis and Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

in multiple training sessions or competitions on the same day, muscle glycogen stores need to be replenished rapidly during the recovery period ( Williams & Rollo, 2015 ). The provision of adequate exogenous CHOs can increase muscle glycogen repletion during rest after glycogen-depleting exercise

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Tom Clifford

; Howatson & van Someren, 2008 ). Indeed, although there are equivocal findings between individual studies—owing, in part, to the paucity of quality studies available—the recovery of muscle function and other symptoms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD; e.g., muscle soreness, inflammation

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Jesús Seco-Calvo, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, César Calvo-Lobo and Alfredo Córdova

Several physical therapy methods were used as postexercise recovery strategies, alleviating musculoskeletal alterations secondary to training and competition. Among these interventions, contrast therapy—which alternates between hot and cold treatment modalities 1 —whole-body cryotherapy, and cold