; Howatson & van Someren, 2008 ). Indeed, although there are equivocal findings between individual studies—owing, in part, to the paucity of quality studies available—the recovery of muscle function and other symptoms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD; e.g., muscle soreness, inflammation
Jesús Seco-Calvo, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, César Calvo-Lobo and Alfredo Córdova
Several physical therapy methods were used as postexercise recovery strategies, alleviating musculoskeletal alterations secondary to training and competition. Among these interventions, contrast therapy—which alternates between hot and cold treatment modalities 1 —whole-body cryotherapy, and cold
Adam D. Osmond, Dean J. Directo, Marcus L. Elam, Gabriela Juache, Vince C. Kreipke, Desiree E. Saralegui, Robert Wildman, Michael Wong and Edward Jo
, and range of motion, which are ultimately attributed to transient localized inflammation and soreness. 1 – 5 In efforts to mitigate EIMD or facilitate recovery to optimize subsequent performance, a variety of practical strategies, such as nutritional supplementation, ice therapy, compression garments
Ian Rollo, Franco M. Impellizzeri, Matteo Zago and F. Marcello Iaia
The physical-performance profiles of subelite male footballers were monitored during 6 wk of a competitive season. The same squad of players played either 1 (1G, n = 15) or 2 (2G, n = 15) competitive matches per week. On weeks 0, 3, and 6, 48 h postmatch, players completed countermovement jump (CMJ), 10- and 20-m sprints, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (YYIRT), and the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire. Both groups undertook 2 weekly training sessions. The 2G showed after 6 wk lower YYIRT (–11% to 3%, 90% CI –15.8% to –6.8%; P < .001) and CMJ performances (–18.7%, –21.6 to –15.9%; P = .007) and higher 10-m (4.4%, 1.8–6.9%; P = .007) and 20-m sprints values (4.7%, 2.9% to 6.4%; P < .001). No differences were found at 3 wk (.06 < P < .99). No changes over time (.169 < P < .611) and no differences time × group interactions (.370 < P < .550) were found for stress, recovery, and the Stress Recovery Index. In conclusion players’ ability to sprint, jump, and perform repeated intense exercise was impaired when playing 2 competitive matches a week over 6 wk.
Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen
overuse injuries, efficient muscle recovery is of special importance during such periods. Although the cellular mechanisms driving the acute regenerative processes are not well elucidated, a growing number of studies have unveiled the benefits of protein feeding strategies in regard to optimizing recovery
Milou Beelen, Louise M. Burke, Martin J. Gibala and Luc J.C. van Loon
During postexercise recovery, optimal nutritional intake is important to replenish endogenous substrate stores and to facilitate muscle-damage repair and reconditioning. After exhaustive endurance-type exercise, muscle glycogen repletion forms the most important factor determining the time needed to recover. Postexercise carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion has been well established as the most important determinant of muscle glycogen synthesis. Coingestion of protein and/or amino acids does not seem to further increase muscle glycogensynthesis rates when CHO intake exceeds 1.2 g · kg−1 · hr−1. However, from a practical point of view it is not always feasible to ingest such large amounts of CHO. The combined ingestion of a small amount of protein (0.2–0.4 g · (0.2−0.4 g · kg−1 · hr−1) with less CHO (0.8 g · kg−1 · hr−1) stimulates endogenous insulin release and results in similar muscle glycogen-repletion rates as the ingestion of 1.2 g · kg−1 · hr−1 CHO. Furthermore, postexercise protein and/or amino acid administration is warranted to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, inhibit protein breakdown, and allow net muscle protein accretion. The consumption of ~20 g intact protein, or an equivalent of ~9 g essential amino acids, has been reported to maximize muscle protein-synthesis rates during the first hours of postexercise recovery. Ingestion of such small amounts of dietary protein 5 or 6 times daily might support maximal muscle protein-synthesis rates throughout the day. Consuming CHO and protein during the early phases of recovery has been shown to positively affect subsequent exercise performance and could be of specific benefit for athletes involved in multiple training or competition sessions on the same or consecutive days.
Dean Norris, David Joyce, Jason Siegler, James Clock and Ric Lovell
constraints, longitudinal measurement of many of these markers is rarely feasible, as is finding a singular metric that is indicative of all fatigue domains. Of these markers, however, recovery of NF is accepted as one of the most practically viable due to its relative ease of assessment and reported
Joanne L. Fallowfield and Clyde Williams
The influence of increased carbohydrate intake on endurance capacity was investigated following a bout of prolonged exercise and 22.5 hrs of recovery. Sixteen male subjects were divided into two matched groups, which were then randomly assigned to either a control (C) or a carbohydrate (CHO) condition. Both groups ran at 70% VO2max on a level treadmill for 90 min or until volitional fatigue, whichever came first (T1), and 22.5 hours later they ran at the same % VO2max for as long as possible to assess endurance capacity (T2). During the recovery, the carbohydrate intake of the CHO group was increased from 5.8 (±0.5) to 8.8 (±0.1) g kg-1 BW. This was achieved by supplementing their normal diet with a 16.5% glucose-polymer solution. An isocaloric diet was prescribed for the C group, in which additional energy was provided in the form of fat and protein. Run times over T1 did not differ between the groups. However, over T2 the run time of the C group was reduced by 15.57 min (p<0.05), whereas those in the CHO group were able to match their T1 performance. Blood glucose remained stable throughout Tl and T2 in both groups. In contrast, blood lactate, plasma FFA, glycerol, ammonia, and urea increased. Thus, a high carbohydrate diet restored endurance capacity within 22.5 hrs whereas an isocaloric diet without additional carbohydrate did not.
Repeated-sprint ability (RSA) is now well accepted as an important fitness component in team-sport performance. It is broadly described as the ability to perform repeated short (~3–4 s, 20–30 m) sprints with only brief (~10–30 s) recovery between bouts. Over the past 25 y a plethora of RSA tests have been trialed and reported in the literature. These range from a single set of ~6–10 short sprints, departing every 20–30 s, to team-sport game simulations involving repeating cycles of walk-jog-stride-sprint movements over 45–90 min. Such a wide range of RSA tests has not assisted the synthesis of research findings in this area, and questions remain regarding the optimal methods of training to best improve RSA. In addition, how RSA test scores relate to player “work rate,” match performance, or both requires further investigation to improve the application of RSA testing and training to elite team-sport athletes.
Ian Craig Perkins, Sarah Anne Vine, Sam David Blacker and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems
We examined the effect of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on high-intensity intermittent running and postrunning lactate responses. Thirteen active males (age: 25 ± 4 yrs, height: 1.82 ± 0.07 m, body mass: 81 ± 14 kg, V̇O2max: 56 ± 4 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, v V̇O2max: 17.6 ± 0.8 km∙h-1) performed a treadmill running protocol to exhaustion, which consisted of stages with 6 × 19 s of sprints with 15 s of low-intensity running between sprints. Interstage rest time was 1 min and stages were repeated with increasing sprint speeds. Subjects consumed capsuled NZBC extract (300 mg∙day-1 CurraNZ; containing 105 mg anthocyanin) or placebo for 7 days (double-blind, randomized, crossover design, wash-out at least 14 days). Blood lactate was collected for 30 min postexhaustion. NZBC increased total running distance by 10.6% (NZBC: 4282 ± 833 m, placebo: 3871 ± 622 m, p = .02), with the distance during sprints increased by 10.8% (p = .02). Heart rate, oxygen uptake, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were not different between conditions for the first 4 stages completed by all subjects. At exhaustion, blood lactate tended to be higher for NZBC (NZBC: 6.01 ± 1.07 mmol∙L-1, placebo: 5.22 ± 1.52 mmol∙L-1, p = .07). There was a trend for larger changes in lactate following 15 min (NZBC: -2.89 ± 0.51 mmol∙L-1, placebo: -2.46 ± 0.39 mmol∙L-1, p = .07) of passive recovery. New Zealand blackcurrant extract (CurraNZ) may enhance performance in sports characterized by high-intensity intermittent exercise as greater distances were covered with repeated sprints, there was higher lactate at exhaustion, and larger changes in lactate during early recovery after repeated sprints to exhaustion.