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Ben-El Berkovich, Aliza H. Stark, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Tali Sinai

was considered statistically different. All analyses were done with SPSS-22 software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Results Demographic and Professional Data A total of 71 individuals responded to the electronic survey, and 68 met the inclusion criteria and completed the questionnaire. The average age of

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Arne Guellich and Stephen Seiler


To compare the intensity distribution during cycling training among elite track cyclists who improved or decreased in ergometer power at 4 mM blood lactate during a 15 wk training period.


51 young male German cyclists (17.4 ± 0.5 y; 30 international, 21 national junior finalists) performed cycle ergometer testing at the onset and at the end of a 15 wk basic preparation period, and reported their daily volumes of defined exercise types and intensity categories. Training organization was compared between two subgroups who improved (Responders, n = 17; ΔPLa4⋅kg-1 = +11 ± 4%) or who decreased in ergometer performance (Non-Responders, n = 17; ΔPLa4⋅kg-1 = –7 ± 6%).


Responders and Non-Responders did not differ significantly in the time invested in noncycling specific training or in the total cycling distance performed. They did differ in their cycling intensity distribution. Responders accumulated significantly more distance at low intensity (<2 mM blood lactate) while Non-Responders performed more training at near threshold intensity (3–6 mM). Cycling intensity distribution accounted for approx. 60% of the variance of changes in ergometer performance over time. Performance at t1 combined with workout intensity distribution explained over 70% of performance variance at t2.


Variation in lactate profle development is explained to a substantial degree by variation in training intensity distribution in elite cyclists. Training at <2 mM blood lactate appears to play an important role in improving the power output to blood lactate relationship. Excessive training near threshold intensity (3–6 mM blood lactate) may negatively impact lactate threshold development. Further research is required to explain the underlying adaptation mechanisms.

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Stein G.P. Menting, Marco J. Konings, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser and Florentina J. Hettinga

skills throughout adolescence. 13 , 21 It is suggested that through the gathering of experiences in training and competition as well as evaluating previous races, athletes learn to more accurately plan their race and respond to environmental stimuli. 13 Where previous research focused primarily on the

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Brian Hanley, Trent Stellingwerff and Florentina J. Hettinga

comprehensive analysis of pacing profiles, using high-resolution 100-m split times, adopted throughout major championships will better inform coaches about successful approaches to middle-distance racing, and including an analysis of variability will indicate the importance of responding to (or instigating

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Jay R. Ebert, Kate E. Webster, Peter K. Edwards, Brendan K. Joss, Peter D’Alessandro, Greg Janes and Peter Annear

. The percentage of respondents selecting each response within the 14 survey questions was tabulated. Results Of the 85 AKS members that were provided the online survey link, 73 (86%) completed and submitted the questionnaire. The results of the survey based on responder status are provided in Table  1

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Blair Crewther, Konrad Witek, Paweł Draga, Piotr Zmijewski and Zbigniew Obmiński

(2–12 weeks; Melville et al., 2015 , 2017 ; Rodgers et al., 2016 ; Willoughby & Leutholtz, 2013 ; Willoughby et al., 2014 ). Other indicators of the HPG-axis (e.g., LH, SHBG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone) have also failed to respond to DAA ( Melville et al., 2015 ; Willoughby & Leutholtz

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Shirley M. Bluethmann, Wayne Foo, Renate M. Winkels, Scherezade K. Mama and Kathryn H. Schmitz

cervical) cancer diagnosis between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016, and (c) were able to read, speak, and write in English (and respond to mailed surveys). We randomly sampled 2,500 adult cancer survivors from 28 Central Pennsylvania counties served by the Penn State Cancer Institute, 500 from each

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Phillip Ward, Shannon L. Smith, Kemal Makasci and Darrell W. Crouch

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of peer-mediated accountability (PMA) on average male and female students and low skilled female students during the performance of the lay-up in basketball. A multiple baseline design was used to assess the effects of PMA on the number of trials performed and the percentage of correct trials. Participants were 9 elementary school students in Grades 4 and 5. Peer-mediated accountability was effective in increasing the opportunities to respond for both average and low skilled students but did not change the percentage of correct performances by the students. These results support previous findings that suggest that, though PMA is an effective strategy to promote opportunities to respond, it is an inappropriate strategy to use when students cannot perform the skill. An analysis of the data also revealed that the lower skilled students performed a similar number of trials as their counterparts.

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Anne R. Schutte and John P. Spencer

The timed-initiation paradigm developed by Ghez and colleagues (1997) has revealed two modes of motor planning: continuous and discrete. Continuous responding occurs when targets are separated by less than 60° of spatial angle, and discrete responding occurs when targets are separated by greater than 60°. Although these two modes are thought to reflect the operation of separable strategic planning systems, a new theory of movement preparation, the Dynamic Field Theory, suggests that two modes emerge flexibly from the same system. Experiment 1 replicated continuous and discrete performance using a task modified to allow for a critical test of the single system view. In Experiment 2, participants were allowed to correct their movements following movement initiation (the standard task does not allow corrections). Results showed continuous planning performance at large and small target separations. These results are consistent with the proposal that the two modes reflect the time-dependent “preshaping” of a single planning system.

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Barbara G. Wiita and Isabelle A. Stombaugh

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in nutrition knowledge, intakes, attitudes, and behaviors as well as health status of 22 female adolescent runners. Subjects completed questionnaires, interviews, and dietary analyses twice over a 3-year period. Over this time they experienced physical growth and improved athletic performance. Although their mean score on a test of basic and sports nutrition knowledge remained stable at 67%, after 3 years more runners correctly responded to statements about carbohydrate and fat. However, fewer responded correctly to statements regarding fluid intake and skipping meals. Although runners increased the percentage of calories consumed as carbohydrates, they significantly decreased their mean energy intake, thus lowering carbohydrate intake. They significantly lowered protein, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes. The incidence of possible eating disorders increased, as did stress fractures. Over 3 years, nutrition knowledge did not improve, the quality of dietary intakes decreased, incidence of eating disorders and stress fractures increased, and menstrual irregularities remained high.