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Luke Felton and Sophia Jowett

The current study aimed to examine whether (a) mean differences and changes in athletes’ attachment style predicted psychological need satisfaction within two diverse relational contexts (coach and parent) and well-being, and (b) mean differences and changes in need satisfaction within the two relational contexts predicted well-being. One hundred and ten athletes aged between 15 and 32 years old completed a multisection questionnaire at three time points over a span of 6 months to assess the main study variables. Multilevel modeling revealed that insecure attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) predicted well-being outcomes at the within- and between-person levels. Avoidant attachment predicted need satisfaction within the parent relational context at both levels, and need satisfaction within the coach relational context at the between-person level. Need satisfaction within both relational contexts predicted various well-being outcomes at the between-person level, while need satisfaction within the parent relational context predicted vitality at the within-person level.

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Paul D. Loprinzi and Jeremy P. Loenneke

Objective:

Examine the association between grip strength and type 2 diabetes prevalence and severity.

Methods:

Using data from NHANES 2011–2012, objectively-determined hand grip strength was assessed using the Takei digital grip strength dynamometer, with diabetes assessed via physician diagnosis and glycohemoglobin A1C.

Results:

A 5 kg greater grip strength was associated with a 14% lower odds of having diabetes for men (ORadjusted = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.94; P = .002). Similarly, for women, a 5 kg greater grip strength was associated with an 18% lower odds of having diabetes (ORadjusted = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.97; P = .03). Grip strength was also associated with glycohemoglobin A1C among women with diabetes (βadjusted = –0.26, 95% CI: –0.39 to –0.12; P = .001), which suggests that grip strength is associated with diabetes severity among women.

Conclusions:

For both men and women, grip strength is associated with type 2 diabetes presence, and among women, grip strength is associated with severity of type 2 diabetes.

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Ester Cerin, Anthony Barnett, Man-chin Cheung, Cindy H.P. Sit, Duncan J. Macfarlane and Wai-man Chan

This study examined reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Long Form (IPAQ-LC) in Chinese seniors, including moderating effects of neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic status (SES) on reliability and validity. The IPAQ-LC was interviewer-administered (n = 96), accelerometer and 7-day walk-diary data were collected (n = 94), and the IPAC-LC was readministered (N = 92). Acceptable reliability was found for all measures of physical activity (PA) overall and across different types of neighborhood. Participants from highly walkable neighborhoods were more reliable at estimating walking for transport. Participants from low-SES areas were less reliable at estimating leisure-time PA and sitting but more reliable at estimating transport-related walking. IPAQ-LC walking was significantly related to light- but not moderate-intensity accelerometry-based PA. It was moderately to strongly related to a 7-day diary of walking. The data imply slow-paced walking, probably due to age, climate, and terrain. The findings suggest that the IPAQ-LC’s reliability and validity are acceptable in Chinese seniors.

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Yanping Duan, Walter Brehm, Petra Wagner, Pak-Kwong Chung, Sebastian Graf, Ru Zhang and Gangyan Si

Background:

A successful transition from late adolescence to adulthood is essential. Physical activity (PA) can support this process and lead to positive health outcomes. The change in PA from inactive to active stages is influenced by psychosocial correlates, and as such, this study tested the relationships among psychosocial correlates, stages of change for PA and health outcomes in university students from Hong Kong (n = 404) and Germany (n = 366).

Methods:

The questionnaire contained (1) PA and stages of change; (2) 10 psychosocial correlates including outcome expectations, affective attitude, barriers, self-efficacy, body-concept, plans, intrinsic motivation, activity emotions, assessment of activity situation, and social support; and (3) 5 health outcomes, including fitness, subjective well-being, health satisfaction, physical complaints, and BMI.

Results:

Barriers and intrinsic motivation were the critical psychosocial variables related to stages of change. Specific planning was more important for Hong Kong students’ stage progression within inactive stages. Competitive or enjoyable PA programs were more effective for male students moving from inactive to active stages. The link between stages of change for PA and health outcomes (ie, fitness, health satisfaction) was well established.

Conclusion:

Public health researchers should conduct effective psychosocial interventions that motivate young adults to engage in PA for positive health outcomes.

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Rute Santos, Maria Paula Santos, José Carlos Ribeiro and Jorge Mota

Background:

The aims of this study were to describe physical activity (PA) prevalence and compare it with other countries and to investigate possible associations between PA and other lifestyle behaviors in Azorean adults.

Methods:

9991 adults (5723 women), aged 37.8 ± 9.5 years, of the 2004 Azorean Physical Activity and Health Study. IPAQ assessed PA. All other lifestyle behaviors (age, gender, education level, income, employment, marital status, number of children, meal frequency, sleep time, sitting time, body mass index and alcohol and tobacco consumptions) were also self-reported.

Results:

57.1% of the participants met current PA recommendations and 32.2% were categorized as Health Enhancing PA (HEPA). Women were less likely to achieve PA recommendations, as well as the HEPA level. In both genders, higher education level, employment status, higher income, and sitting for more than 3h/day were negative predictors of HEPA; and, having at least 5 meals/day was positive predictor for the same PA level.

Conclusions:

There is a significant proportion of Azoreans, particularly women, that does not do enough PA. Targeted programs for Azoreans aimed to increase PA levels should pay special attention on women, and consider a multifactorial approach, once several lifestyle behaviors seem to interact with PA levels, in this population.

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Travis Anderson, Sandra J. Shultz, Nancy I. Williams, Ellen Casey, Zachary Kincaid, Jay L. Lieberman and Laurie Wideman

, the timing and magnitude of relaxin exposure may vary considerably among females and be difficult to detect with only one or two serum samples collected throughout a menstrual cycle. This variability may also help inform previously reported menstrual cycle phase differences in ACL injury risk (see

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Lindsay B. Baker, Kelly A. Barnes, Bridget C. Sopeña, Ryan P. Nuccio, Adam J. Reimel and Corey T. Ungaro

fluid intake recommendations ( Maughan & Shirreffs, 2010 ). Due to the time constraints and/or practical limitations of field conditions, it may not be possible for sweat samples to be analyzed immediately after collection. Therefore, oftentimes sweat samples must be temporarily stored on site or

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Chunxiao Li, Lijuan Wang, Martin E. Block, Raymond K.W. Sum and Yandan Wu

from exploratory factor analysis ( Brown, 2015 ). The factor structure of PESEISD-A was examined in only one independent sample, and there is a need to enhance its generalizability using other populations ( Messick, 1995 ). It is still unknown whether the one-factor model of the scale would hold in

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John Cairney, Heather Clark, Dean Dudley and Dean Kriellaars

 = response speed; h = Harter item; csa = CSAPPA item. Methods Sample We employed two samples from the Physical Health and Activity Study Team project ( Cairney, Hay, Veldhuizen, Missiuna, & Faught, 2010 ), a grade 5 sample and a grade 7 sample (see Table  1 for a description of both). This allowed us to