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Maea Hohepa, Robert Scragg, Grant Schofield, Gregory S. Kolt and David Schaaf

Background:

Youth display suboptimal levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Few studies have examined the existence of the “displacement hypothesis” or the effect of parental strategies on activity behaviors during the after-school period.

Methods:

A total of 3471 students (12–18 years old) completed a self-report survey that assessed after-school physical activity and television (TV) use and perceived parental strategies (ie, encouragement to be active, TV-viewing rules). Participants were grouped into 4 activity groups: high TV/low active, high TV/active, low TV/low active, or low TV/active. Descriptive statistics and nominal logistic-regression analyses were conducted.

Results:

Compared with students who watched less than 1 h of TV, participants who watched ≥4 h of TV were half as likely to be active after school (≥4 h; adjusted odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI .40–.65). Compared with the low TV/active group, the other activity groups were at least 1.28 times more likely to have parents that provided only 1 parental strategy (encouragement for activity or TV rules) and up to 4.7 times more likely to have parents that provided neither strategy.

Discussion:

Sedentary behaviors are associated with displacement of active pursuits. Parental strategies exert a strong influence on after-school behaviors of high school students.

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Maureen T. McGuire, Dianne R. Neumark-Sztainer and Mary Story

This study assessed whether the correlates related to physical activity and television viewing differed across gender, grade, and racial groups. Adolescents (n = 4746) from 31 junior and senior high schools completed a self-administered survey. Adolescents’ physical activity was related to their families’ and friends’ fitness concerns. Adolescents’ physical activity was also related to their own fitness and health concerns. Few correlates of physical activity differed by gender, age, or race. Television viewing was negatively related to the family’s fitness concerns and health concerns; however, these factors accounted for a small amount of the variance in adolescents’ television viewing. None of the factors related to television viewing differed by age or race groups. Future studies will need to identify the factors related to physical activity and television viewing among adolescents who are at greatest risk for inactivity.

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Andrew W. Tu, Allison W. Watts and Louise C. Masse

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parent and adolescent levels of physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep among a group of overweight and obese adolescents.

Methods:

Baseline data of parent–adolescent pairs who enrolled in a lifestyle modification intervention were analyzed for this study (n = 176). Participants completed questionnaires about their screen time (TV, video game, and computer time), wore an accelerometer for 8 days, and completed a sleep diary for 1 week. In total, 98 parent–adolescent dyads provided valid data for the analyses. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between parent and adolescent’s moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA), step counts, sedentary behaviors, and sleep duration. Analyses were split by weekday, weekday evening and weekend.

Results:

Parent–adolescent MVPA was significantly associated on weekdays (b = 0.18; SE = 0.08; β = 0.26), weekday evenings (b = 0.21; SE = 0.08; β = 0.28), and weekends (b = 0.29; SE = 0.12; β = 0.27). This study found associations between parent–child video game time on weekends (b = 1.10; SE = 0.49; β = 0.24) and computer time on weekdays (b = 0.42; SE = 0.19; β = 0.23). Adolescent sleep was associated with parental sleep on weekdays only (b = 0.38; SE = 0.09; β = 0.46).

Conclusions:

The findings warrant further investigation into the direction and mechanism of the relationship between parent and adolescent weight related behaviors.

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Luke Felton and Sophia Jowett

The current study aimed to examine whether (a) mean differences and changes in athletes’ attachment style predicted psychological need satisfaction within two diverse relational contexts (coach and parent) and well-being, and (b) mean differences and changes in need satisfaction within the two relational contexts predicted well-being. One hundred and ten athletes aged between 15 and 32 years old completed a multisection questionnaire at three time points over a span of 6 months to assess the main study variables. Multilevel modeling revealed that insecure attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) predicted well-being outcomes at the within- and between-person levels. Avoidant attachment predicted need satisfaction within the parent relational context at both levels, and need satisfaction within the coach relational context at the between-person level. Need satisfaction within both relational contexts predicted various well-being outcomes at the between-person level, while need satisfaction within the parent relational context predicted vitality at the within-person level.

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Rute Santos, Maria Paula Santos, José Carlos Ribeiro and Jorge Mota

Background:

The aims of this study were to describe physical activity (PA) prevalence and compare it with other countries and to investigate possible associations between PA and other lifestyle behaviors in Azorean adults.

Methods:

9991 adults (5723 women), aged 37.8 ± 9.5 years, of the 2004 Azorean Physical Activity and Health Study. IPAQ assessed PA. All other lifestyle behaviors (age, gender, education level, income, employment, marital status, number of children, meal frequency, sleep time, sitting time, body mass index and alcohol and tobacco consumptions) were also self-reported.

Results:

57.1% of the participants met current PA recommendations and 32.2% were categorized as Health Enhancing PA (HEPA). Women were less likely to achieve PA recommendations, as well as the HEPA level. In both genders, higher education level, employment status, higher income, and sitting for more than 3h/day were negative predictors of HEPA; and, having at least 5 meals/day was positive predictor for the same PA level.

Conclusions:

There is a significant proportion of Azoreans, particularly women, that does not do enough PA. Targeted programs for Azoreans aimed to increase PA levels should pay special attention on women, and consider a multifactorial approach, once several lifestyle behaviors seem to interact with PA levels, in this population.

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Yanping Duan, Walter Brehm, Petra Wagner, Pak-Kwong Chung, Sebastian Graf, Ru Zhang and Gangyan Si

Background:

A successful transition from late adolescence to adulthood is essential. Physical activity (PA) can support this process and lead to positive health outcomes. The change in PA from inactive to active stages is influenced by psychosocial correlates, and as such, this study tested the relationships among psychosocial correlates, stages of change for PA and health outcomes in university students from Hong Kong (n = 404) and Germany (n = 366).

Methods:

The questionnaire contained (1) PA and stages of change; (2) 10 psychosocial correlates including outcome expectations, affective attitude, barriers, self-efficacy, body-concept, plans, intrinsic motivation, activity emotions, assessment of activity situation, and social support; and (3) 5 health outcomes, including fitness, subjective well-being, health satisfaction, physical complaints, and BMI.

Results:

Barriers and intrinsic motivation were the critical psychosocial variables related to stages of change. Specific planning was more important for Hong Kong students’ stage progression within inactive stages. Competitive or enjoyable PA programs were more effective for male students moving from inactive to active stages. The link between stages of change for PA and health outcomes (ie, fitness, health satisfaction) was well established.

Conclusion:

Public health researchers should conduct effective psychosocial interventions that motivate young adults to engage in PA for positive health outcomes.

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Paul D. Loprinzi and Jeremy P. Loenneke

Objective:

Examine the association between grip strength and type 2 diabetes prevalence and severity.

Methods:

Using data from NHANES 2011–2012, objectively-determined hand grip strength was assessed using the Takei digital grip strength dynamometer, with diabetes assessed via physician diagnosis and glycohemoglobin A1C.

Results:

A 5 kg greater grip strength was associated with a 14% lower odds of having diabetes for men (ORadjusted = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.94; P = .002). Similarly, for women, a 5 kg greater grip strength was associated with an 18% lower odds of having diabetes (ORadjusted = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.97; P = .03). Grip strength was also associated with glycohemoglobin A1C among women with diabetes (βadjusted = –0.26, 95% CI: –0.39 to –0.12; P = .001), which suggests that grip strength is associated with diabetes severity among women.

Conclusions:

For both men and women, grip strength is associated with type 2 diabetes presence, and among women, grip strength is associated with severity of type 2 diabetes.

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Ester Cerin, Anthony Barnett, Man-chin Cheung, Cindy H.P. Sit, Duncan J. Macfarlane and Wai-man Chan

This study examined reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Long Form (IPAQ-LC) in Chinese seniors, including moderating effects of neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic status (SES) on reliability and validity. The IPAQ-LC was interviewer-administered (n = 96), accelerometer and 7-day walk-diary data were collected (n = 94), and the IPAC-LC was readministered (N = 92). Acceptable reliability was found for all measures of physical activity (PA) overall and across different types of neighborhood. Participants from highly walkable neighborhoods were more reliable at estimating walking for transport. Participants from low-SES areas were less reliable at estimating leisure-time PA and sitting but more reliable at estimating transport-related walking. IPAQ-LC walking was significantly related to light- but not moderate-intensity accelerometry-based PA. It was moderately to strongly related to a 7-day diary of walking. The data imply slow-paced walking, probably due to age, climate, and terrain. The findings suggest that the IPAQ-LC’s reliability and validity are acceptable in Chinese seniors.

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