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Winnie Y.H. Lee, Bronwyn K. Clark, Elisabeth Winkler, Elizabeth G. Eakin and Marina M. Reeves

Background:

This study evaluated the responsiveness to change in physical activity of 2 self-report measures and an accelerometer in the context of a weight loss intervention trial.

Methods:

302 participants (aged 20 to 75 years) with type 2 diabetes were randomized into telephone counseling (n = 151) or usual care (n = 151) groups. Physical activity (minutes/week) was assessed at baseline and 6-months using the Active Australia Survey (AAS), the United States National Health Interview Survey (USNHIS) walking for exercise items, and accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M; ≥1952 counts/minute). Responsiveness to change was calculated as responsiveness index (RI), Cohen’s d (postscores) and Cohen’s d (change-scores).

Results:

All instruments showed significant improvement in the intervention group (P < .001) and no significant change for usual care (P > .05). Accelerometer consistently ranked as the most responsive instrument while the least responsive was the USHNIS (responsiveness index) or AAS (Cohen’s d). RIs for AAS, USNHIS and accelerometer did not differ significantly and were, respectively: 0.45 (95% CI: 0.26–0.65); 0.38 (95% CI: 0.20–0.56); and, 0.49 (95% CI: 0.23–0.74).

Conclusions:

Accelerometer tended to have the highest responsiveness but differences were small and not statistically significant. Consideration of factors, such as validity, feasibility and cost, in addition to responsiveness, is important for instrument selection in future trials

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Danielle Symons Downs

Research examining the determinants of exercise motivation among ethnically diverse women is scant. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive utility of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/TPB) for explaining exercise intention among postpartum women and to examine the moderating influence of ethnicity. Participants were 63 low-income postpartum women (n = 16 white, 47 non-white) who completed self-reported measures of their exercise attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intention. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that (a) attitude (β = .59, p < .05) and subjective norm (β = .29, p < .001) explained 66% of the variance in intention, (b) PBC (β = .03, p > .05) was not a significant predictor, and (c) the contributions of the theory constructs predicting intention were not moderated by ethnicity. The study findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the TRA as a framework for understanding exercise intention among ethnically diverse postpartum women. The lack of predictive support for TPB may be due to ethnic/cultural differences or methodological limitations with PBC; however, future research is needed to test this assumption.

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Louise Foley, Harry Prapavessis, Ralph Maddison, Shauna Burke, Erin McGowan and Lisa Gillanders

Two studies were conducted to predict physical activity in school-aged children. Study 1 tested the utility of an integrated model in predicting physical activity (PA) intention and behavior—the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and self-efficacy theory. Six hundred and forty-five New Zealand children (aged 11–13 years) completed measures corresponding to the integrated model and a self-reported measure of PA one week later. Perceived behavioral control (PBC) and subjective norm were the two strongest predictors of intentions. Task efficacy and barrier efficacy were the two strongest predictors of PA. A second study (Study 2) was conducted to determine whether the self-efficacy measures could discriminate objectively measured PA levels. Sixty-seven Canadian children (aged 11–13 years) completed task and barrier self-efficacy measures. The following week, children classified as ‘high’ (n = 11) and ‘lower’ (n = 7) for both task and barrier efficacy wore an Actical® monitor for seven consecutive days to provide activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) data. Results showed that children with high efficacy expended significantly greater AEE than their lower efficacious counterparts. Findings from these two studies provide support for the use of self-efficacy interventions as a potentially useful means of increasing PA levels among school-aged children.

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Hairul A. Hashim, Golok Freddy and Ali Rosmatunisah

Background:

The current study was undertaken to examine the associations between self-determination, exercise habit, anxiety, depression, stress, and academic achievement among adolescents aged 13 and 14 years in eastern Malaysia.

Methods:

The sample consisted of 750 secondary school students (mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 0.49). Participants completed self-report measures of exercise behavioral regulation, negative affect, and exercise habit strength. Midyear exam results were used as an indicator of academic performance. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.

Results:

The results of structural equation modeling revealed a close model fit for the hypothesized model, which indicates that higher levels of self-determination were positively associated with habituated exercise behavior. In turn, exercise habit strength fostered academic achievement and buffered the debilitative effect of stress, depression, and anxiety on student academic performance. The analysis of model invariance revealed a nonsignificant difference between male and female subjects.

Conclusion:

The findings support the notion that habituated exercise fosters academic performance. In addition, we found that habituated exercise buffers the combined effects of stress, anxiety and depression on academic performance. The finding also supports the roles of self-determination in promoting exercise habituation.

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Jennifer Brunet and Catherine M. Sabiston

This study examined (1) the relationships between self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation and impression construction) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among breast cancer survivors, and (2) whether social cognitive constructs (i.e., self-presentational efficacy expectancy [SPEE]; self-presentational outcome expectancy [SPOE]; self-presentational outcome value [SPOV]) moderate these relationships. Breast cancer survivors (N = 169; M age = 55.06, SD = 10.67 years) completed self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age and body mass index, indicated that impression motivation was a significant correlate of MVPA (β = .25). Furthermore, SPEE (β = .21) and SPOV (β = .27) were moderators of this relationship. The final models accounted for 12–24% of the variance in MVPA. The findings of this study suggest that self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation) may indeed relate to breast cancer survivors’ MVPA. In addition, social cognitive constructs (i.e., SPEE, SPOV) moderated the relationship between impression motivation and MVPA. It may be effective to target impression motivation, SPEE, and SPOV in interventions aimed at increasing MVPA among breast cancer survivors.

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Jakob L. Vingren, James R. Morrow Jr., Elaine Trudelle-Jackson and Merly T. Mathew

Background:

Aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities are related to morbidities and mortality. Resistance exercise/strength training items are included in national surveys, but the manner in which muscle-strengthening activity is queried varies among these surveys.

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to use different self-report measures to examine the prevalence of meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans regarding muscle-strengthening activities among women.

Methods:

We surveyed 606 community-dwelling women at 4 points in time across a 1.5- to 3-year time period to determine whether the respondents met the national physical activity guidelines for performing muscle-strengthening activities ≥ 2 days per week.

Results:

Results were consistent across time but depended on the manner in which the question was asked. If asked to reflect over the past month or a general question about the typical number of days engaged, approximately 40% of women reported engaging in ≥ 2 days per week of resistance exercise/strength training. However, when reports were obtained weekly for 13 weeks, only approximately 18% of respondents met the guidelines.

Conclusion:

Results indicate that the timing and nature of questioning can substantially influence the self-reported prevalence of muscle-strengthening physical activities for community-dwelling women.

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Virginie Nicaise, Simon Marshall and Barbara E. Ainsworth

Background:

Evidence suggests that Latina women appear to be less physically active than women of other racial/ethnic groups. This study evaluated how different domains of physical activity (PA) contributed to overall levels of PA among low-income Latinas, the validity of Latinas’ self-reported PA, and potential moderators of self-report bias in PA.

Methods:

A community sample of 105 Latinas (mean age = 35.9 ± 9.0 years; mean body mass index = 31.6 ± 7.2) completed the long form Spanish-language version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), wore an accelerometer for seven days, and completed self-reported measures of acculturation and socioeconomic status.

Results:

Ninety-six percent of IPAQ-reported moderate-intensity PA (MPA) was accrued during household activities, with only 4% accrued during leisure time. Seventy-two percent of participants met national recommendations for PA using IPAQ data, but only 20% met recommendations when measured by accelerometer. When bouts of MPA lasting >10 min were included, 0% met recommendations. Age appeared to moderate self-report bias of vigorous PA, and there were nonsignificant trends for acculturation and income to moderate MPA and vigorous-intensity PA, respectively.

Conclusions:

Data suggest that it is important to measure household activity of Latinas, and that the IPAQ yield overestimates of self-report PA.

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Timothy Gannon, Daniel Landers, Karla Kubitz, Walter Salazar and Steven Petruizello

To determine if the different EEG patterns noted in previous studies were due to between-task differences in muscular exertion, the present study examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in the seconds prior to either holding the weight (without lifting) or executing an arm lift at either 25% or 95% of the subject's one-repetition maximum value. Temporal EEG and tempomandibular and trapezius electromyography (EMG) measures were obtained from subjects (N=20) in the half-second period during the holding of the weight or immediately before lifting the weight. The degree of attentional focus on the task was quantified through self-report measures after each set of trials. EMG activity was not significantly different between the hold and lift phases. The self-report degree of attentional focus was higher in the lift phase, compared to the hold phase, for both 25% and 95% conditions (p<.01). Increases in EEG activity for the 25% condition were observed between the hold and lift phases at 4 Hz (p<.003). This extended to 10 additional frequencies in the 95% condition (p<.004), with beta (13 to 30 Hz) activity greater in the right hemisphere (p<.004). Because there were no EMG differences between phases or conditions» it was concluded that the EEG changes were reflective of cognitive differences associated with attending to tasks that differed in level of muscular exertion.

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Helen Elizabeth Brown, Nicola Burton, Nicholas David Gilson and Wendy Brown

Background:

An emerging area of interest in workplace health is presenteeism; the measurable extent to which physical or psychosocial symptoms, conditions and disease adversely affect the work productivity of those who choose to remain at work. Given established links between presenteeism and health, and health and physical activity, presenteeism could be an important outcome in workplace physical activity research. This study provides a narrative review of questionnaires for use in such research.

Methods:

Eight self-report measures of presenteeism were identified. Information regarding development, constructs measured and psychometric properties was extracted from relevant articles.

Results:

Questionnaires were largely self-administered, had 4–44 items, and recall periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. Items were identified as assessing work performance, physical tolerance, psychological well-being and social or role functioning. Samples used to test questionnaires were predominantly American male employees, with an age range of 30–59 years. All instruments had undergone psychometric assessment, most commonly discriminant and construct validity.

Conclusion:

Based on instrument characteristics, the range of conceptual foci covered and acceptable measurement properties, the Health and Work Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Work Limitations Questionnaire are suggested as most suitable for further exploring the relationship between physical activity and presenteeism.

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Sarah J. Fraser, Justin J. Chapman, Wendy J. Brown, Harvey A. Whiteford and Nicola W. Burton

Background:

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using questionnaires and accelerometers to measure physical activity and sedentary behavior among inpatient adults with mental illness.

Methods:

Participants completed a physical activity and sitting time questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Feasibility was assessed in terms of participant engagement, self-reported ease/difficulty of completing study components, extreme self-report data values and adherence to accelerometer wear time criteria. Ease/difficulty ratings were examined by level of distress.

Results:

177 inpatients were invited to the study, 101 completed the questionnaires and 36 provided valid accelerometry data. Participants found it more difficult to complete sitting time and physical activity questionnaires than to wear the accelerometer during waking hours (z = 3.787, P < .001; z = 2.824, P = .005 respectively). No significant differences were found in ease/difficulty ratings by level of distress for any of the study components. Extreme values for self-reported sitting time were identified in 27% of participants.

Conclusion:

Inpatient adults with mental illness can engage with self-report and objective methods of measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior. They were initially less willing to participate in objective measurement, which may however be more feasible than self-report measures.