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Paulo Sugihara Junior, Alex S. Ribeiro, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Paolo M. Cunha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Brad J. Schoenfeld and Edilson S. Cyrino

Biological aging is associated with a progressive reduction in strength and skeletal muscle mass (SMM), a condition commonly known as sarcopenia, and these alterations show a negative correlation with health, quality of life, and survival in older women ( Brady et al., 2014 ; Clark & Manini, 2010

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Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino

kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters. Body Composition A spectral bioelectrical impedance device (Xitron Hydra; Xitron, San Diego, CA) was used to estimate the total body water, body fat (%), resistance ( R ), and reactance ( X c). The skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was estimated by the

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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

even higher in Spain (37%) ( Salvà et al., 2016 ). The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) defines this syndrome as a gradual and widespread loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. As a result, mobility disorders appear, such as an increased risk of falls and fractures

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

accompanying loss of lean body mass (LBM) during caloric restriction that can comprise roughly 25% of the total weight lost ( Weinheimer et al., 2010 ). Lean body mass, a significant proportion of which is skeletal muscle, is critical for good metabolic function (i.e., site of postprandial glucose disposal

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Andrew M. Holwerda, Freek G. Bouwman, Miranda Nabben, Ping Wang, Janneau van Kranenburg, Annemie P. Gijsen, Jatin G. Burniston, Edwin C.M. Mariman and Luc J.C. van Loon

Skeletal muscle adaptation is regulated by the balance between protein synthesis and protein breakdown rates. Muscle protein fractional synthesis rates (FSRs) can be determined by administration of stable isotope labeled amino acids and the subsequent measurement of their incorporation into muscle

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Ilkka Heinonen, Jukka Kemppainen, Toshihiko Fujimoto, Juhani Knuuti and Kari K. Kalliokoski

The skeleton provides mechanical support for stature and skeletal muscle movement. Furthermore, maintaining and enhancing bone health is also important for fracture prevention. Recent studies show that bone marrow metabolism plays an important role with systemic energy metabolism ( Bermeo et

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

athletes will incur injury during International Athletics Championships. This is important since approximately half of these injuries will result in a time loss and absence from sports, including both training and competing ( Feddermann-Demont et al., 2014 ). Among these injuries, skeletal muscle is the

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Kosuke Kojima, Christopher L. Brammer, Tyler D. Sossong, Takashi Abe and Joel M. Stager

thickness at 9 sites of the body; Experience, competitive swimming experience; %Fat, percentage of body fat; MTT sum , sum of muscle tissue thickness at 9 sites; SMM, skeletal muscle mass. *Significant difference between weeks 0 and 11 ( P  < .05). Anthropometric, Body Composition, and Muscle Size and Mass

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Thomas Cattagni, Vincent Gremeaux and Romuald Lepers

of aerobic capacity in older females. While aerobic capacity is known to be related to cardiovascular health, it is also related to skeletal muscle health. 8 However, a recent meta-analysis revealed that age-related declines in muscular strength were not prevented in male master athletes competing

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Ezequiel Morsella, Anthony G. Velasquez, Jessica K. Yankulova, Yanming Li, Christina Y. Wong and Dennis Lambert

action selection, specifically for the skeletal-muscle output system, which is the effector system for what in everyday life is called voluntary behavior. Action selection, as when one pushes one lever versus another lever, is distinct from motor control/motor programming ( Proctor & Vu, 2010